Bricks, Beads and Bones: Harappan Civilisation Class 12 History Notes

The Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization, was a Bronze Age society that emerged around 4700 years ago near the Indus River basin. It was characterized by its advanced urban planning, including the use of baked bricks and a sophisticated drainage system. The economy was bolstered by a strong agricultural base, which supported a complex trade network and a variety of professions. Architecturally, cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro were divided into a Citadel and a Lower Town, reflecting a structured societal hierarchy. Innovations in metallurgy and standardized weights and measures highlight the civilization’s technological prowess, making it one of the earliest known urban cultures in human history.

The notes given here are almost completely based on the 1st Chapter in the Class 12 NCERT History Textbook “Themes in Indian History”. For pictures, images and other such depictions, refer to the textbook. Her only textual notes are given.


1. The Harappan Seal: Key Artefact

  • The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1, see book for pictures) is a distinctive artefact made of steatite.
  • Often contains animal motifs and signs from an undeciphered script.
  • Provides valuable insights into civilization.

2. Archaeological Evidence

  • Knowledge about the Harappan civilisation primarily derived from archaeological evidence.
  • The evidence includes remnants of houses, pots, ornaments, tools, and seals.
  • Demonstrates the significance of interpreting archaeological material.

3. Understanding the Harappan Civilization

  • Distinctive Objects: Archaeologists refer to the Harappan culture as the Indus valley civilisation.
  • Culture Definition: “Culture” signifies a group of objects with a common style found within a specific geographical area and time period.
  • Harappan Culture Objects: Include seals, beads, weights, stone blades (Fig. 1.2), and baked bricks.
  • Geographical Spread: Found in diverse areas such as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan (Pakistan), and Gujarat (Map 1).

4. Historical Context

  • Naming Origin: Named after the site of its discovery, Harappa (p. 6).
  • Chronological Period: The Harappan civilisation dates between c. 2600 and 1900 BCE.
  • Cultural Phases: Existence of Early Harappan and Late Harappan cultures, distinct from the Mature Harappan culture.

5. Classification of Harappan Civilization

  • Mature Harappan Culture: The term used to distinguish the Harappan civilisation from earlier and later cultures.
  • Unknown Aspects: Despite extensive knowledge, there remain aspects of the civilisation that are yet unknown and may remain so.

6. Conclusion

  • The Indus valley civilisation, or Harappan culture, is a rich source of historical knowledge.
  • Interpretations of archaeological findings contribute to our understanding, though some aspects may forever remain a mystery.

I. Beginnings: Predecessor Cultures

1.1  Archaeological Diversity:  Before the emergence of the Mature Harappan, various archaeological cultures existed in the region.

  • Distinctive Pottery, Agriculture, and Pastoralism: Predecessor cultures were characterized by unique pottery styles, evidence of agriculture, and pastoralism.
  • Craft Traditions: Evidence of crafts was also present in these cultures.

1.2  Characteristics of Predecessor Cultures

  • Small Settlements: Previous cultures featured small settlements.
  • Absence of Large Buildings: Notable absence of large structures in these early settlements.

1.3  Transition to Harappan Civilisation

Break Between Early Harappan and Harappan Civilisation is evident from:

  • Large-scale burning at some sites.
  • Abandonment of settlements during the transition.
  • Indicates a significant shift or disruption between the earlier and later phases.

2.  Subsistence Strategies

2.1 Geographic Development

  • The Mature Harappan culture emerged in regions previously inhabited by the Early Harappan cultures, as illustrated in Maps 1 and 2.
  • Common elements, including subsistence strategies, were shared between these cultures.

2.2 Dietary Practices

  • The Harappans had a diverse diet, incorporating various plant and animal products, including fish.
  • Archaeo-botanists reconstructed dietary practices through the examination of finds such as charred grains and seeds.
  • Grains found at Harappan sites encompassed wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, sesame, and millets (in Gujarat), with rice being relatively rare.
  • Animal bones, including those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo, and pig, were found, suggesting domestication. Additionally, bones of wild species like boar, deer, and gharial were present. The source of meat, whether through hunting or trade, remains uncertain.

2.3 Agricultural Technologies

  • The reconstruction of actual agricultural practices poses challenges, but evidence points to the broadcasting of seeds on ploughed lands.
  • Seals and terracotta sculptures featuring bulls indicate the knowledge of ploughing, with oxen likely used for this purpose. Terracotta plough models found in Cholistan and Banawali support this inference.
  • Identification of harvesting tools, whether stone blades set in wooden handles or metal tools, remains ambiguous.

2.4 Irrigation Practices

  • Most Harappan sites are situated in semi-arid lands, suggesting a requirement for irrigation in agriculture.
  • Evidence of canals at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan implies the use of irrigation systems. However, canals are not found in Punjab or Sind, possibly due to siltation over time.
  • The possibility of utilizing well water for irrigation is considered, and water reservoirs in Dholavira (Gujarat) may have served as a means of storing water for agricultural purposes.

3. Mohenjo-Daro: A Planned Urban Centre

3.1 Overview

  • Distinctive Feature: The Harappan civilisation’s unique aspect was the development of urban centres, with Mohenjodaro being a prominent example.
  • First Discovered Site: Although Harappa was the first discovered site, Mohenjodaro gained more prominence.

3.2 Urban Planning

  • Citadel and Lower Town: The settlement was divided into two sections — the Citadel (smaller and higher) and the Lower Town (larger and lower).
  • Construction: The Citadel, elevated due to buildings on mud brick platforms, was walled and physically separated from the Lower Town. Lower Town was also walled, with several buildings on platforms serving as foundations.
  • Planning Indicators: Standardized bricks, whether sun-dried or baked, with a consistent ratio (length four times the height, breadth twice the height), were used across Harappan settlements.

3.3 Drainage System

  • Grid Pattern: Harappan cities featured a meticulously planned drainage system. Streets and roads laid out in an approximate grid pattern intersecting at right angles.
  • Building Sequence: Streets with drains were laid out first, followed by the construction of houses. Houses needed at least one wall along a street to accommodate domestic wastewater flowing into street drains.

3.4 Domestic Architecture

  • Residential Buildings: In the Lower Town at Mohenjodaro, residential buildings were centered around courtyards, likely used for activities such as cooking and weaving.
  • Privacy Considerations: Lack of windows along the ground level walls and main entrances not providing direct views of interiors indicate a concern for privacy.
  • Infrastructure: Each house had a bathroom with drains connected to street drains, remains of staircases for second stories or roofs, and many houses had wells, totaling about 700 in Mohenjodaro.

3.5 The Citadel

  • Public Structures: The Citadel features structures likely used for special public purposes.
  • Warehouse: A massive structure, with lower brick portions remaining, possibly used for storage.
  • Great Bath: A large rectangular tank surrounded by a corridor, with steps leading into the tank. The tank, made watertight by setting bricks on edge and using gypsum mortar, may have been used for special ritual baths.
  • Context and Uniqueness: The distinctive buildings in the Citadel suggest that the Great Bath had a special significance, potentially for ritualistic purposes.

4. Tracking Social Differences

4.1 Burials

  • Strategy for Social Analysis: Archaeologists employ various strategies to determine social or economic differences within a culture, and one key method is studying burials.
  • Comparison with Egyptian Pyramids: Unlike the massive royal burials in contemporary Egypt, Harappan burials were generally in pits, and differences in burial pit construction may hint at social distinctions.
  • Variations in Burial Practices: Some burials featured hollowed-out spaces lined with bricks, raising questions about potential social implications.
  • Grave Contents: Graves contained pottery and ornaments, suggesting a belief in their use in the afterlife. Jewellery was found in both male and female burials. Copper mirrors were sometimes buried with the dead, but precious items were not commonly included.

4.2 Looking for “Luxuries”

  • Artefact Analysis: Archaeologists categorize artefacts into utilitarian and luxury items to identify social differences.
  • Utilitarian Objects: Daily-use items made from ordinary materials like stone or clay, found distributed throughout settlements.
  • Luxury Objects Criteria: Objects are considered luxuries if they are rare, made from costly non-local materials, or involve complicated technologies.
  • Examples of Luxuries: Faience pots, considered precious due to the difficulty in making them, and rare objects made of valuable materials.
  • Distribution Patterns: Rare and valuable objects are concentrated in larger settlements like Mohenjodaro and Harappa, less commonly found in smaller settlements like Kalibangan.
  • Gold as a Precious Material: Gold, rare and precious, found in hoards, emphasizing its scarcity and importance.

4.3 Complexities in Artefact Classification

  • Spindle Whorls Dilemma: The classification becomes complicated when daily-use items, like spindle whorls made of rare materials such as faience, blur the lines between utilitarian and luxury.
  • Distribution Analysis: Rare artefacts made of valuable materials are predominantly found in large settlements, providing insights into potential social hierarchies.

5. Finding Out About Craft Production

5.1 Chanhudaro: A Craft-Centric Settlement

  • Chanhudaro Overview: Located on Map 1, Chanhudaro is a small settlement (less than 7 hectares) compared to Mohenjodaro (125 hectares). It is almost exclusively dedicated to various craft productions.
  • Crafts Practiced: Craft activities include bead-making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making, and weight-making.

5.2 Bead Production

  • Material Variety for Beads: Remarkable diversity in materials used for beads, including carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite, copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracotta, and burnt clay.
  • Bead Shapes and Decorations: Numerous shapes like disc-shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, and segmented. Decorations included incising, painting, and etched designs.
  • Techniques and Challenges: Techniques varied based on material properties. Steatite beads were easily worked, some being moulded from a paste made with steatite powder, posing a puzzle for archaeologists studying ancient technology.

5.3 Carnelian Bead Production

  • Archaeological Experiments: Archaeological experiments reveal that the red color of carnelian beads was obtained by firing the yellowish raw material at various production stages.
  • Production Process: Nodules were chipped into rough shapes, finely flaked into the final form, and the process was completed by grinding, polishing, and drilling.
  • Specialized Drills: Specialized drills found at Chanhudaro, Lothal, and Dholavira.

5.4 Shell-Craft Specialization

  • Coastal Centres: Nageshwar and Balakot, located near the coast on Map 1, were specialized centres for making shell objects, including bangles, ladles, and inlay.
  • Distribution of Finished Products: Shell objects and finished products from Chanhudaro and Lothal likely transported to large urban centres like Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

5.5 Identifying Craft Centres

  • Archaeological Indicators for Craft Production: To identify centres of craft production, archaeologists look for raw materials, tools, unfinished objects, rejects, and waste material.
  • Waste as an Indicator: Waste is a significant indicator of craft work, as discarded pieces at the production site provide insights into the crafting process.
  • Evidence in Large Cities: Traces suggest that, besides small, specialized centres, craft production also occurred in large cities such as Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

6. Strategies for Procuring Materials

6.1 Local and Distant Material Procurement

  • Variety of Materials: Various materials were used for craft production, with some like clay locally available, while others such as stone, timber, and metal had to be procured externally.
  • Land Transport: Terracotta toy models of bullock carts suggest land routes as a significant means of transporting goods and people.
  • Riverine and Coastal Routes: Riverine routes along the Indus and its tributaries, as well as coastal routes, were likely used for transportation.

6.2 Materials from the Subcontinent and Beyond

  • Strategies for Procuring Materials: Harappans employed different strategies to procure materials for craft production.
  • Settlements in Resource-Rich Areas: Establishing settlements like Nageshwar and Balakot in areas with readily available resources, such as shells.
  • Strategic Settlement Placement: Settlements like Shortughai (Afghanistan) and Lothal were strategically located near sources of lapis lazuli, carnelian, steatite, and metal.

6.3 Expeditions and Communication

  • Raw Material Expeditions: Harappans may have sent expeditions to regions like Khetri (Rajasthan) for copper and south India for gold. Communication with local communities is evidenced by occasional finds of Harappan artefacts in these areas.
  • Ganeshwar-Jodhpura Culture: Archaeological evidence suggests a distinct non-Harappan culture in the Khetri area (Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture), possibly involved in supplying copper to the Harappans.

6.4 Contact with Distant Lands

  • Oman as a Source of Copper: Recent archaeological finds suggest the import of copper from Oman, supported by chemical analyses showing common traces of nickel in Omani copper and Harappan artefacts.
  • Long-Distance Contacts: Mesopotamian texts from the third millennium BCE mention copper coming from Magan (possibly Oman), and traces of nickel in copper found at Mesopotamian sites.
  • Products Exchange: Thickly coated Harappan jars found in Oman may have been used for exchanging the contents, possibly for Omani copper.
  • Mesopotamian Contacts: Mesopotamian texts mention contact with regions named Dilmun (Bahrain), Magan, and Meluhha (possibly the Harappan region), detailing products exchanged like carnelian, lapis lazuli, copper, gold, and various woods.
  • Haja-bird: Possibly it was a peacock who is mentioned in Mesopotamian myths about Meluhha.
  • Communication by Sea: Mesopotamian texts refer to Meluhha as a “land of seafarers,” suggesting that communication with Oman, Bahrain, or Mesopotamia occurred by sea.
  • Depictions of Ships: Seals depict ships and boats, reinforcing the likelihood of sea communication in the Harappan civilisation.

7. Seals, Script, Weights

7.1 Seals and Sealings

  • Communication Facilitation: Seals and sealings played a crucial role in facilitating long-distance communication. A bag of goods would be sealed with wet clay, and seals pressed onto the clay left impressions. The intact seal upon reaching its destination ensured that the contents were not tampered with and conveyed the sender’s identity.

7.2 An Enigmatic Script

  • Inscriptions on Seals: Harappan seals often have a line of writing, likely containing the name and title of the owner. The motif, usually an animal, possibly conveyed meaning to non-readers.
  • Undeciphered Script: The Harappan script remains undeciphered to date. It is not alphabetical, with around 375 to 400 signs. Some seals show wider spacing on the right, indicating a right-to-left writing direction.

7.3 Weights

  • Regulation of Exchanges: Exchanges in the Harappan civilisation were regulated by a precise system of weights, typically made of chert and usually cubical in shape (Fig. 1.2), lacking markings.
  • Binary and Decimal System: Lower denominations of weights followed a binary system (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc., up to 12,800), while higher denominations followed the decimal system.
  • Purpose of Weights: Smaller weights were likely used for weighing jewellery and beads. Metal scale-pans have also been discovered.

7.4 Writing on Various Objects

  • Diverse Writing Surfaces: Harappan writing has been found on various objects, including seals, copper tools, jar rims, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellery, bone rods, and even an ancient signboard.
  • Possibility of Widespread Literacy: The variety of objects with inscriptions raises questions about the potential widespread literacy in the Harappan civilisation. Perishable materials may have also contained writing.

8. Ancient Authority

8.1 Complex Decision-Making

  • Indications of Complex Decisions: The Harappan society displayed indications of complex decision-making evident in the extraordinary uniformity of artefacts such as pottery, seals, weights, and bricks.
  • Uniformity in Bricks: Bricks, produced across the region from Jammu to Gujarat, maintained a uniform ratio, showcasing a coordinated effort.

8.2 Organizing Activities

  • Centralized Organization: The uniformity in artefacts and strategic settlement locations raises questions about the organization behind these activities.
  • Brick Production and Construction: The mobilization of labor for brick production and the construction of massive walls and platforms prompts the question of who organized and directed these efforts.

8.3 Palaces and Kings

  • Search for Centres of Power: Despite indications of complex decision-making, archaeological records do not provide immediate answers regarding centers of power.
  • Ambiguity in Archaeological Finds: A large building at Mohenjodaro, labeled as a palace, did not yield spectacular finds. The “priest-king” statue lacks clarity regarding political power and ritual practices.
  • Debates on Harappan Rulers: Archaeologists hold varying opinions on the existence and nature of rulers in Harappan society.
    • Some argue for the absence of rulers, suggesting equal status for everyone.
    • Others propose the presence of multiple rulers, each governing a specific city like Mohenjodaro or Harappa.
    • Another perspective posits a single state, emphasizing similarities in artefacts, evidence of planned settlements, standardized brick ratios, and proximity to raw material sources.
  • Current Plausibility: The theory of a single state appears the most plausible at present, considering the complexity of decisions and unlikely collective decision-making by entire communities.

9. The End of the Civilisation

9.1 Abandonment and Transformation

  • Abandonment of Mature Harappan Sites: By c. 1800 BCE, most Mature Harappan sites, especially in regions like Cholistan, had been abandoned.
  • Population Expansion: Simultaneously, there was a population expansion into new settlements in Gujarat, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh.

9.2 Transformation of Material Culture

  • Changes in Occupied Harappan Sites after 1900 BCE: In the few Harappan sites that continued to be occupied after 1900 BCE, a transformation of material culture occurred.
  • Disappearance of Distinctive Artefacts: The disappearance of distinctive artefacts like weights, seals, and special beads was noted.
  • Decline in Writing, Trade, and Craft Specialisation: Writing, long-distance trade, and craft specialisation also disappeared. There was a marked reduction in the variety and quantity of materials used for production.
  • Deterioration in Construction Techniques: House construction techniques deteriorated, and large public structures were no longer produced.
  • Shift to Rural Way of Life: Overall, artefacts and settlements indicated a shift to a rural way of life in what are termed “Late Harappan” or “successor cultures.”

9.3 Explanations for Changes

  • Various Explanations Proposed: Multiple explanations have been proposed for these changes, including climatic change, deforestation, excessive floods, and the shifting or drying up of rivers.
  • Inadequacy of Some Causes: While certain causes may apply to specific settlements, they do not explain the collapse of the entire civilisation.

9.4 End of the Harappan State

  • Collapse of Unifying Element: Evidence suggests that a strong unifying element, possibly the Harappan state, came to an end.
  • Evidences of Collapse: The disappearance of seals, script, distinctive beads, and pottery, the shift from a standardized weight system to local weights, and the decline and abandonment of cities indicate this collapse.
  • Subsequent Developments: The subcontinent had to wait for over a millennium for new cities to develop in a completely different region.

10. Discovering the Harappan Civilisation

10.1 Forgotten Cities

  • Post-Abandonment Period: After the decline and abandonment of Harappan cities, people gradually forgot about them.
  • Rediscovery of Artefacts: Millennia later, as people inhabited the area, strange artefacts occasionally surfaced due to floods, soil erosion, ploughing, or treasure digging.

10.2 Cunningham’s Early Confusion

  • Archaeological Exploration in the 19th Century: Cunningham, the first Director-General of the ASI, focused on Early Historic and later periods, relying on written texts for guidance.
  • Harappa’s Misfit in Investigation Framework: Harappa did not fit neatly within Cunningham’s framework, as it was not part of the Chinese pilgrims’ itinerary and was not known as an Early Historic city.
  • Cunningham’s Lack of Recognition: Despite finding Harappan artefacts, Cunningham did not recognize their antiquity due to his focus on a different historical timeframe.

10.3 Realization of Harappan Antiquity

  • Discovery of Harappan Seals: Seals found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro by archaeologists like Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji indicated an older cultural context.
  • Announcement of a New Civilisation: In 1924, John Marshall, Director-General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus Valley to the world.
  • Contemporaneity with Mesopotamia: Similar unidentified seals found in Mesopotamia highlighted the contemporaneity of the Harappan civilisation with Mesopotamia.

10.4 Marshall’s Contribution

  • John Marshall’s Role: Marshall’s tenure as Director-General marked a shift in Indian archaeology. He was the first professional archaeologist in India and brought experience from Greece and Crete.
  • Focus on Everyday Life: Marshall emphasized looking for patterns of everyday life, departing from a sole focus on spectacular finds.
  • Excavation Techniques: Marshall excavated along regular horizontal units, but valuable information about the context of finds was lost due to this approach.

10.5 Wheeler’s Rectification

  • Role of R.E.M. Wheeler: Wheeler, Director-General of the ASI from 1944, rectified excavation problems. He emphasized following the stratigraphy of the mound for more precise archaeological practices.

10.6 Present-Day Explorations

  • National Boundaries and Harappan Sites: The frontiers of the Harappan civilisation extend beyond present-day national boundaries, with major sites now in Pakistani territory.
  • Indian Efforts in Locating Sites: Indian archaeologists have conducted surveys in Kutch, Punjab, and Haryana, discovering and exploring sites like Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi, and Dholavira.
  • Ongoing Explorations: Fresh explorations continue, addressing issues related to cultural sequences, site locations, and the functions of artefacts.

10.7 International Interest and Scientific Techniques

  • Growing International Interest: Since the 1980s, there has been increasing international interest in Harappan archaeology.
  • Collaborative Efforts: Specialists from the subcontinent and abroad collaborate, employing modern scientific techniques for surface exploration and in-depth analysis of various archaeological evidence.
  • Future Prospects: Ongoing explorations and collaborations hold the promise of revealing more insights into the Harappan civilisation in the future.

11. Problems of Piecing Together the Past

11.1 Material Evidence and Classification

  • Material Evidence Importance: Understanding the Harappan civilisation relies on material evidence, including pottery, tools, ornaments, and household objects, as organic materials like cloth decompose.
  • Surviving Materials: Stone, burnt clay (terracotta), and metal are among the surviving materials, while valuable artefacts found intact are accidental rather than typical.

11.2 Classifying Finds and Interpretation

  • Recovering Artifacts: When archaeologists find artifacts, their job has just begun. They need to classify, or organize, the artifacts they find.
  • Classification by Material: One way to classify artifacts is by the material they are made of, such as stone, clay, metal, bone, or ivory.
  • Classification by Function: Another way is by function. Archaeologists have to figure out if an artifact is a tool, an ornament, or maybe both. They also have to think about whether it was used for some kind of ritual.
  • Understanding Function: To understand what an artifact was used for, archaeologists often look at things we use today that look similar. For example, beads, stone blades, and pots can give clues.
  • Context Matters: Where an artifact is found can also help determine its function. If it’s found in a house, a drain, a grave, or a kiln, that can give important clues.
  • Using Indirect Evidence: Sometimes, archaeologists have to use indirect evidence. For example, even though there are no direct traces of clothing from some ancient sites, we can look at sculptures to get an idea of what people might have worn.
  • Developing Frames of Reference: Archaeologists need to develop ways to understand artifacts. For example, when the first Harappan seal was found, it couldn’t be understood until it was compared with finds from Mesopotamia and placed in the right cultural sequence.

11.3 Problems of Interpretation in Religious Practices

  • Reconstructing Religious Practices: One of the challenges in archaeology is reconstructing ancient religious practices. Early archaeologists often thought that unusual or unfamiliar objects might have had religious significance.
  • Mother Goddesses and Priest-Kings: For example, terracotta figurines of women with elaborate jewelry and head-dresses were often considered representations of mother goddesses. Similarly, rare stone statues of men in a seated posture, like the “priest-king,” were also classified as having religious significance.
  • Structures and Ritual Significance: Some structures, like the Great Bath and fire altars found at Kalibangan and Lothal, have been assigned ritual significance based on their design and context.
  • Interpreting Seals: Seals with ritual scenes or plant motifs have been interpreted as depicting religious practices or nature worship. Some seals also show animals, like the one-horned animal often called the “unicorn,” which are thought to be mythical creatures.
  • Proto-Shiva and Lingas: Figures on seals depicted in a yogic posture, surrounded by animals, have been regarded as a depiction of “proto-Shiva,” an early form of the Hindu deity Shiva. Conical stone objects have been classified as lingas, which are associated with Shiva worship.
  • Example of Proto-Shiva Seals: The depiction of “proto-Shiva” on seals is an example of this challenge. The earliest religious texts, like the Rigveda, mention a god named Rudra, who is later identified with Shiva. However, the depiction of Rudra in the Rigveda does not match the “proto Shiva” seals, raising questions about their interpretation. Some scholars have suggested that these figures might represent shamans instead.

11.4 Speculative Reconstructions

  • Reconstruction Challenges: Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are based on parallels with later traditions. However, this approach can be speculative, especially when interpreting symbols and practices that are not directly comparable to known traditions.
  • From Present to Past: Moving from the known (present) to the unknown (past) is plausible for some objects but becomes speculative, especially in interpreting “religious” symbols.
  • Challenges in Interpretation: Challenges arise when interpreting symbols and depictions without direct textual support, leading to speculative reconstructions.

Leave a Reply