Class 12 Politics: The End of Bipolarity Chapter Question and Answers

CBSE Class 12 NCERT History Chapter 1 “The End of Bipolarity” Textbook Exercise Solutions are given here. If you want notes of this chapter, then click here. If you want to see more study materials for Class 12 Political Science, then click here.

The End of Bipolarity Q & Ans.

1. Which among the following statements that describe the nature of Soviet economy is wrong?
a. Socialism was the dominant ideology
b. State ownership/control existed over the factors of production
c. People enjoyed economic freedom
d. Every aspect of the economy was planned and controlled by the State

Ans. (c) People enjoyed economic freedom

2. Arrange the following in chronological order:
a. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
b. Fall of the Berlin Wall
c. Disintegration of the Soviet Union
d. Russian Revolution

Ans.

(d) Russian Revolution (1917)
(a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979-1989)
(b) Fall of Berlin Wall (1989)
(c) Disintegration of the Soviet Union (1991)

3. Which among the following is NOT an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR?
a. End of the ideological war between the US and USSR
b. Birth of CIS
c. Change in the balance of power in the world order
d. Crises in the Middle East

Ans. (d) Crises in the Middle East

4. Match the following:

Ans. (i) → (c); (ii) → (d); (iii) → (a); (iv) → (e); (v) → (b)

5. Fill in the blanks.

a. The Soviet political system was based on _______ ideology.
b. _____ was the military alliance started by the USSR.
c. ________ party dominated the Soviet Union’s political system.
d. __________ initiated the reforms in the USSR in 1985.
e. The fall of the ________ symbolised the end of the Cold War.

Ans. (a) Socialist (b) Warsaw Pact (c) Communist (d) Gorbachev (e) Berlin Wall

6. Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.

Ans. Three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US are:

  • State ownership/control over the factors of production: In the Soviet economy, the state owned and controlled most of the resources, industries, and enterprises, whereas in a capitalist economy like the US, private individuals and corporations own and control the means of production.
  • Centralized planning: The Soviet economy operated under a centrally planned system where the government made decisions about production, distribution, and pricing of goods and services. In contrast, the US economy relies more on market forces and decentralized decision-making.
  • Absence of economic freedom: In the Soviet economy, individuals had limited economic freedom as most aspects of economic life were controlled by the state. In contrast, the US economy emphasizes individual economic freedom, allowing individuals to make choices about their economic activities within the framework of laws and regulations.

7. What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?

Ans. The factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR include:

  • Economic stagnation: The Soviet economy was facing stagnation and inefficiency, leading to shortages of consumer goods and declining living standards.
  • Political pressure: There was growing discontent among the population due to lack of political freedom, leading to demands for political reforms and greater openness.
  • International pressure: The USSR was facing increasing pressure from the West, both economically and militarily, which highlighted the need for internal reforms to compete effectively on the global stage.

8. What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India?

Ans. The major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India include:

  • Shift in geopolitical dynamics: The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union led to a unipolar world order dominated by the US, resulting in changes in India’s foreign policy calculations and strategic alliances.
  • Economic opportunities: India benefited from the opening up of new markets and opportunities for trade and investment in the post-Soviet space.
  • Strategic challenges: The disintegration of the Soviet Union created instability in regions like Central Asia, leading to security concerns for India, particularly in relation to issues like terrorism and extremism.

9. What was Shock Therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?

Ans. Shock Therapy was an economic strategy implemented in post-communist countries, including Russia, characterized by rapid and radical transition from a centrally planned economy to a free-market capitalist system. It involved measures such as rapid privatization, liberalization of prices and trade, and austerity measures.

Whether it was the best way to transition from communism to capitalism is a matter of debate. While proponents argue that it was necessary to break free from the inefficiencies of the Soviet system and jumpstart economic growth, critics contend that it led to economic dislocation, social upheaval, and widening inequalities, and that a more gradual and controlled approach might have been more effective in ensuring a smoother transition.

10. Write an essay for or against the following proposition: “With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia”.

Ans. Essay: Against the Proposition: With the disintegration of the second world, India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia.

India’s foreign policy should be based on strategic autonomy and diversification of partnerships rather than shifting towards any single power. While the US is an important partner for India, particularly in areas like defense and technology, Russia remains a crucial ally with deep historical and strategic ties. Changing focus solely on the US could jeopardize India’s longstanding relationship with Russia, which has been built on mutual trust and cooperation over decades.

Furthermore, India’s multi-aligned foreign policy serves its national interests by maintaining a balance of power and hedging against geopolitical risks. By nurturing relationships with both the US and Russia, India can leverage their strengths and minimize dependence on any single country. Additionally, Russia’s support on critical issues like Kashmir and defense cooperation has been invaluable to India’s security.

Moreover, India’s ties with Russia extend beyond geopolitics to include economic, cultural, and technological cooperation. Russia remains an important partner for India in areas like energy, space exploration, and nuclear technology. Ignoring these ties in favor of closer alignment with the US would be shortsighted and detrimental to India’s long-term interests.

In conclusion, while India should continue to strengthen its partnership with the US, it should not do so at the expense of its relationship with Russia. A balanced and diversified foreign policy that maintains strong ties with both countries is essential for India’s security, prosperity, and strategic autonomy in a rapidly changing global landscape


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