The subject and predicate are part of a sentence. Whatever the type of sentence it is, it can be split into its subjective and predicative parts. Here you will learn about subjects and predicates, and their types with relevant examples that will help understand the concept in a comprehensive way.
What are Subject and Predicate?
In grammar, a subject is part of a sentence that typically performs the action of the sentence or is the topic of the sentence. It is usually a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that comes before the verb in a declarative sentence. The subject of a sentence is what the sentence is about.
For example – in the sentence “Reena is eating an apple”, “Reena” is the subject, since she is the one performing the action of eating the apple.
In the sentence “The dog chased the cat,” “The dog” is the subject because it is performing the action of chasing.
It is important to note that in some sentences, the subject may not come before the verb, as in questions or commands. In those cases, the subject may come after the verb or may not be explicitly stated at all.
Subject वाक्य में वह शब्द होता है जो कार्य करता है या जिसके बारे में जानकारी दी जाती है। हिंदी में इसे “विषय” कहते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, “राम खाना खा रहा है” में “राम” विषय है।
विषय वाक्य के प्रमुख भाग में से एक होता है और कर्ता, कर्म और संज्ञा के रूप में प्रकट होता है।
विषय की पहचान आसान होती है क्योंकि यह वाक्य में काफी सामान्य रूप से पहले होता है। जब हम किसी वाक्य को बनाते हैं, तो हम उस शब्द को चुनते हैं जिसके बारे में हम बात करना चाहते हैं और उसे विषय के रूप में प्रदर्शित करते हैं। वाक्य के बाकी भाग में विषय के बारे में विवरण दिया जाता है जैसे कि विशेषण या कर्म।
उदाहरण के रूप में, “राम ने एक किताब खरीदी” (Ram eats food.) वाक्य में “राम” विषय है। इस वाक्य में “राम” को कर्ता के रूप में प्रदर्शित किया गया है जो “ने” और “खरीदी” के साथ उपयोग किया गया है।
A predicate refers to the part of a sentence that expresses what the subject is doing or what is happening to the subject. It usually consists of a verb and any accompanying objects, complements or adverbial modifiers that are necessary to complete the sense of the sentence.
For example – in the sentence “John is running in the park”, the subject is “John” and the predicate is “is running in the park”. The verb “is running” expresses the action that the subject is doing, and the phrase “in the park” provides additional information about where the action is taking place.
Predicates can be simple, consisting of only a verb and its objects, or they can be complex, containing multiple clauses or phrases that work together to convey a more complicated idea. They are an essential element of sentence structure and are necessary for conveying complete and meaningful ideas.
Predicate (विधेयक) वाक्य में वह भाग होता है जो विषय के बारे में कुछ कहता है। किसी भी वाक्य में Subject को छोड़ कर बाकी सब Predicate का ही हिस्सा होता है।
Verb (क्रिया) Predicate का प्रमुख हिस्सा होती है।
उदाहरण के लिए, “राम खाना खा रहा है” में “खा रहा है” प्रेडिकेट है क्योंकि ये शब्द वाक्य के Subject यानि ‘राम’ के बारे में बात रहे हैं।
Some simple examples of subject and predicate:
1. The cat is sleeping.
- Subject: The cat
- Predicate: is sleeping
2. She is reading a book.
- Subject: She
- Predicate: is reading a book
3. The sun is shining brightly.
- Subject: The sun
- Predicate: is shining brightly
4. The flowers are blooming in the garden.
- Subject: The flowers
- Predicate: are blooming in the garden
5. I am learning a new language.
- Subject: I
- Predicate: am learning a new language
In each example, the subject is the noun or pronoun that the sentence is about, and the predicate is the verb and any other words that describe or modify the subject.
Types of Predicates
There are two types of predicates: simple predicate and complete predicate.
The simple predicate is the main verb or verb phrase in the sentence that tells us what the subject is doing. It does not include any words that describe or modify the verb.
(i). The dog barked.
The simple predicate in this sentence is “barked” It is the main verb that tells us what the subject (the dog) did.
The complete predicate is the verb along with its objects, complements, and adverbial modifiers that give more information about the subject and its action.
(i). Sarah is singing a song.
The complete predicate in this sentence is “is singing a song”. It includes the main verb “is singing” and its direct object “a song”.
(ii). The sun is shining brightly in the sky.
The complete predicate in this sentence is “is shining brightly in the sky”. It includes the main verb “is shining”. the adverbial modifier “brightly”, and the prepositional phrase “in the sky”.
(iii). My brother is a doctor and works at the hospital.
The complete predicate in this sentence is “is a doctor and works at the hospital”. It includes the linking verb “is,” the predicate noun “a doctor”, and the second verb “works” with its prepositional phrase “at the hospital”.
Types of Subjects In a Sentence
There are several types of subjects that can be found in a sentence. Here are some of the most common ones:
The simple subject is the main noun or pronoun in the sentence that the sentence is about. It is usually just one word.
(i). The dog barked loudly.
The simple subject in this sentence is “dog”.
The compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that share the same predicate. They are usually joined by a coordinating conjunction such as “and,” “or,” or “but.”
(i). The cat and the dog are playing together.
The compound subject in this sentence is “the cat and the dog”.
The complete subject includes the simple subject and any words that modify or describe it. It tells us more about the subject and gives us a more complete picture of what the sentence is about. For example:
(i). The big, brown dog barked loudly.
The complete subject in this sentence is “the big, brown dog”.
The implied subject is not explicitly stated in the sentence but can be inferred from the context. It is usually used in commands or instructions.
(i). Sit down and be quiet.
The implied subject in this sentence is “you”.
The nominal subject is a noun or pronoun that comes after a linking verb and renames or describes the subject. It is also called a predicate noun.
(i). My favourite hobby is reading.
The nominal subject in this sentence is “reading”. It renames the subject “my favourite hobby”.
How Can we Enlarge Predicates in A Sentence?
We can enlarge the predicate in a sentence by adding more information about the action or state of being that the main verb expresses.
Here are some ways to do that:
1. Using Direct Object:
We can add a direct object to the predicate. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. For example:
(i). She cooked dinner. (simple predicate)
(ii). She cooked a delicious dinner for her family. (enlarged predicate)
In the second sentence, the direct object “dinner” is added to the predicate and the adjective “delicious” is used to describe it.
2. Using Indirect Object:
We can add an indirect object to the predicate. An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that receives the direct object. For example:
(i). He gave me a book. (simple predicate)
(ii). He gave a book to me as a gift. (enlarged predicate)
In the second sentence, the indirect object “me” is added to the predicate to show who received the direct object, and the prepositional phrase “as a gift” is used to give more information about the action.
3. Using Object Complement:
We can add an object complement to the predicate. An object complement is a noun or adjective that renames or describes the direct object. For example:
(i). She made him a cake. (simple predicate)
(ii). She made him a delicious cake. (enlarged predicate)
In the second sentence, the object complement “delicious” is added to the predicate to describe the direct object “cake”.
4. Using Adverbial Modifier:
We can add an adverbial modifier to the predicate. An adverbial modifier is a word or phrase that modifies the verb by giving more information about the time, place, manner, or degree of the action.
(i). She walked. (simple predicate)
(ii). She walked slowly and carefully in the park. (enlarged predicate)
In the second sentence, the adverbial modifiers “slowly and carefully” and “in the park” are added to the predicate to give more information about the manner and place of the action.