The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Question & Answers Class 10 History

Class 10 NCERT History Chap. 1 ‘The Rise of Nationalism in Europe’ Question & Answers: The questions are from Textbook exercises. Click here for Notes & resources on Class 10 SST.

Write in Brief

  1. Write a note on:
    a) Guiseppe Mazzini
    b) Count Camillo de Cavour
    c) The Greek war of independence
    d) Frankfurt parliament
    e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
  2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
  3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
  4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
  5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?


Ans.1. Short Notes are given below:

a) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian nationalist leader who advocated for the unification of Italy. He founded the secret society “Young Italy” to promote his goals of Italian unity and republicanism.

b) Count Camillo de Cavour was a key figure in the Italian unification movement. He served as the chief minister of Sardinia-Piedmont and played a crucial role in forming alliances, particularly with France, to defeat Austria and unify Italy.

c) The Greek War of Independence was a struggle by Greeks against Ottoman rule. It began in 1821 and received support from other European nations sympathetic to Greek culture and history. The war eventually led to Greece gaining independence in 1832.

d) The Frankfurt Parliament was a national assembly convened in 1848 in Frankfurt, Germany, with the aim of creating a unified German nation-state. It drafted a constitution for a German nation, but its efforts were ultimately unsuccessful due to opposition from conservative forces.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: Women played significant roles in nationalist struggles, although their contributions were often overlooked. They formed political associations, participated in demonstrations, and advocated for their rights. However, they were frequently denied suffrage and faced discrimination within nationalist movements.

Ans.2. The French revolutionaries undertook several steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:

  • They introduced symbols such as the tricolor flag and the national anthem to evoke patriotism.
  • They implemented educational reforms to promote loyalty to the nation and spread revolutionary ideals.
  • Revolutionary festivals and ceremonies were organized to celebrate national unity and the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • The adoption of a new calendar and the use of revolutionary symbols in public spaces further reinforced national identity.

Ans.3. Marianne and Germania were personifications of the French and German nations, respectively. They were portrayed as female allegorical figures symbolizing the ideals of liberty, unity, and nationalism. The way they were depicted, often with specific attributes like the red cap for Marianne and the crown of oak leaves for Germania, helped reinforce national identity and unity among the people.

Ans.4. The process of German unification involved:

  • Initial attempts by liberal nationalists to unify Germany through the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, which ultimately failed.
  • Prussia under Otto von Bismarck took the initiatives. Bismarck orchestrated a series of wars and defeated Denmark, Austria, and France over seven years’ period.
  • After defeating France in Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the North German Confederation was formed under Prussian leadership, which led to the annexation of southern German states.
  • On 18 jan, 1871, King William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor, marking the establishment of the German Empire and the completion of German unification.
  • The coronation took place in The hall of Mirror in Versaillies in France in the presence of Bismarck, military generals and other dignitries from states.

Ans.4. Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him-

  • (i) He established the civil code of 1804, also known as Napoleonic code. This did away with all privileges based on birth. It established equality before law and secured the right to property.
  • (ii) He simplified administrative divisions.
  • (iii) He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • (iv) In towns, guild systems were removed.
  • (v) Transport and communications services were improved.


  1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
  2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
  3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
  4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
  5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?


1. The 1848 revolution of the liberals refers to a series of uprisings and revolutions across Europe, primarily led by the educated middle classes, with the aim of achieving liberal reforms and national unification. The liberals advocated for political ideals such as constitutionalism, democracy, and the rule of law. Socially, they sought to dismantle traditional hierarchies and promote equality before the law. Economically, liberals supported free-market capitalism, private property rights, and limited government intervention in the economy.

2. Examples of the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe include:

  • Romanticism: Romantic artists and poets celebrated the unique cultural heritage of their nations, fostering a sense of national pride and identity. For example, Johann Gottfried Herder promoted the idea of a unique German cultural identity rooted in folk traditions.
  • Language and Literature: The standardization and promotion of national languages played a crucial role in fostering national consciousness. Writers and intellectuals used literature to evoke nationalist sentiments and promote the idea of a shared national identity.
  • Folklore and Tradition: Folk music, dances, and customs were used to celebrate national identity and resist foreign domination. For instance, in Poland, the use of Polish language and traditional folk culture helped maintain a sense of national identity despite foreign occupation.

3. Nations developed differently over the nineteenth century depending on various factors such as historical context, social structure, and political dynamics. Two examples:

  • Germany: Germany’s development as a nation-state was characterized by a gradual process of unification led by Prussia under Otto von Bismarck. Economic modernization and military victories over neighboring states played a significant role in consolidating German identity and centralizing state power.
  • Italy: Italy’s path to nationhood was marked by a struggle against foreign domination and internal fragmentation. Leaders like Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillo de Cavour played key roles in advocating for Italian unity and independence. The Risorgimento movement culminated in the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II.

4. The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike the rest of Europe in several ways:

  • Britain experienced a gradual and relatively peaceful process of nation-building, without the upheavals and revolutions seen elsewhere in Europe.
  • The formation of the British nation-state was not driven by ethnic or linguistic factors but by the consolidation of state power under the English monarchy and parliament.
  • Unlike in continental Europe, where nationalism often took on an exclusionary or aggressive character, British nationalism emphasized a sense of common identity and shared values among diverse ethnic and regional groups.

5. Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to a combination of factors:

  • Ethnic and religious diversity: The Balkans were home to various ethnic groups, including Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, and Albanians, each with their own cultural and religious identities.
  • Ottoman rule: The decline of the Ottoman Empire created power vacuums and fueled nationalist aspirations among subject peoples seeking independence and self-determination.
  • Great power rivalries: European powers, including Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, competed for influence in the Balkans, exacerbating existing ethnic and religious tensions.
  • Nationalist movements: The spread of romantic nationalism in the Balkans inspired movements for independence and unification based on ethnic and cultural identity, leading to conflicts and wars for territorial control.

Another Set of Answers:

1. The 1848 revolution of the liberals was a series of uprisings and movements across Europe, primarily led by the educated middle classes, aiming for political reforms and national unification. Liberals advocated for constitutionalism, individual rights, and representative government. Politically, they sought to establish constitutional monarchies or republics, limiting the powers of absolute monarchs. Socially, liberals supported equality before the law, freedom of speech, and the abolition of feudal privileges. Economically, they favored free trade, laissez-faire capitalism, and the removal of barriers to entrepreneurship. Overall, liberals aimed to create modern nation-states based on democratic principles and individual freedoms.

2. Culture played a significant role in fostering nationalism in Europe:

  • Romanticism: Romantic artists and poets celebrated national identity and heritage through literature, art, and music. Examples include the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder’s emphasis on folk culture and the Polish composer Karol Kurpinski’s nationalist operas.
  • Language and Literature: The promotion of vernacular languages and the collection of folklore helped strengthen national identities. Writers like Dante Alighieri in Italy and Adam Mickiewicz in Poland used literature to inspire nationalist sentiment.
  • Visual Representations: Allegorical figures like Marianne in France and Germania in Germany personified national identity, while national symbols such as flags and anthems reinforced collective unity.

3. Nations developed differently over the nineteenth century:

  • Italy: Italian unification was driven by leaders like Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count Camillo de Cavour, who orchestrated alliances and military campaigns to unify the fragmented Italian states under the Kingdom of Italy.
  • Germany: Otto von Bismarck played a central role in German unification through realpolitik, using diplomacy and war to consolidate German states under Prussian leadership and establish the German Empire. Both countries experienced regional diversity, cultural movements, and political upheavals, leading to the formation of unified nation-states.

4. The history of nationalism in Britain differed from that of Europe primarily due to its gradual evolution and lack of a revolutionary upheaval.

Britain’s formation as a nation-state was a result of centuries-long processes, including the Acts of Union with Scotland and Ireland in 1707 and 1801.

Unlike continental Europe, Britain did not experience widespread nationalist movements or violent revolutions in the nineteenth century. Instead, British nationalism was largely based on imperial expansion and the propagation of English culture and institutions.

5. Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to a combination of factors:

  • Ethnic Diversity: The Balkans comprised various ethnic groups, including Slavs, Greeks, and Albanians, living under Ottoman rule. Ethnic rivalries and aspirations for independence fueled nationalist sentiments.
  • Ottoman Decline: The weakening of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century created opportunities for nationalist movements to challenge Ottoman authority and seek self-determination.
  • Great Power Rivalry: European powers, including Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, competed for influence in the Balkans, exacerbating tensions and leading to conflicts such as the Crimean War and the Balkan Wars.
  • Romantic Nationalism: The spread of romantic nationalist ideas inspired movements for independence and unity among Balkan peoples, leading to revolutions and uprisings against Ottoman rule.

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