Class 8 Chap. 4 Judiciary Question & Answers: Here you find the answers to textbook questions and in-text questions. Click here for more study materials.
Textbook Exercise Answers
Q. 1. You read that one of the main functions of the judiciary is ‘upholding the law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights’. Why do you think an independent judiciary is necessary to carry out this important function?
Ans. An independent judiciary is essential for upholding the law and enforcing Fundamental Rights because it ensures that the judiciary can operate without bias or external influence. It is above caste, creed, or religion and conducts fair trials, delivering impartial justice. An independent judiciary is free from any individual or machinery’s influence, guaranteeing that the legal system remains fair and just.
Q. 2. Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided in Chapter 1. How do you think the Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review?
Ans. The Right to Constitutional Remedies allows citizens to approach the court if they believe their Fundamental Rights have been violated by the State. Judicial review is the power of the judiciary to examine and invalidate laws or actions that violate the Constitution. The Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to judicial review because it empowers citizens to seek judicial intervention when their rights are infringed upon, leading to the review and potential invalidation of laws or actions that violate the Constitution.
Q. 3. In the following illustration, fill in each tier with the judgments given by the various courts in the
Sudha Goel case. Check your responses with others in class.
Ans. Here are the judgments given by various courts in the Sudha Goel case:
- Lower Court: The Lower Court convicted Laxman, his mother Shakuntala, and his brother-in-law Subash Chandra, sentencing all three of them to death.
- High Court: The High Court acquitted Laxman, Shakuntala, and Subash Chandra.
- Supreme Court: The Supreme Court found Laxman and his mother guilty but acquitted Subash Chandra due to insufficient evidence. The Supreme Court sentenced the accused to life imprisonment.
Q. 4. Keeping the Sudha Goel case in mind, tick the sentences that are true and correct the ones that are false
(a) The accused took the case to the High Court because they were unhappy with the decision of the Trial Court.
(b) They went to the High Court after the Supreme Court had given its decision.
(c) If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused can go back again to the Trial Court
Ans. (a) True
Q. 5. Why do you think the introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all?
Ans. The introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is significant because it simplifies the legal process, allowing anyone, including individuals or organizations, to file PILs on behalf of those whose rights are being violated. PILs reduce barriers such as cost and complexity, making it easier for marginalized or underprivileged individuals to seek justice. Even a letter or telegram addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court can be treated as a PIL, ensuring broader access to justice for all.
Q. 6. Re-read excerpts from the judgment on the Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case. Now write in your own words what the judges meant when they said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life.
Ans. The judges meant that the Right to Livelihood is an integral component of the Right to Life guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution. They emphasized that “life” goes beyond mere existence; it encompasses the means by which a person sustains their life, including their employment and livelihood. Therefore, the judges believed that the eviction of individuals from their places of work and residence would lead to the deprivation of their livelihood, ultimately resulting in the deprivation of life itself.
Q. 7. Write a story around the theme, ‘Justice delayed is justice denied.’
Ans. (Story creation is a creative task and should be done by the student.)
Here is a sample of such a story
Once upon a time in the bustling city of Dwella, there lived a man named Raj. He was an ordinary citizen with a heart full of dreams and a strong belief in justice. Dwella was known for its vibrant streets, but it was also infamous for its sluggish legal system.
Raj’s life took an unexpected turn one rainy evening when he witnessed a hit-and-run accident while waiting at a crowded bus stop. A speeding car had struck a young cyclist, leaving him severely injured. Without hesitation, Raj rushed to the cyclist’s side, called for an ambulance, and stayed with him until help arrived. The accident had taken a toll on the young man, and he needed extensive medical treatment.
Raj decided to become the voice of the injured cyclist, whose name was Arjun. He filed a police report, shared the eyewitness account, and collected as much evidence as possible. He believed that justice would prevail swiftly, and Arjun would receive compensation for his injuries.
However, as the days turned into weeks and then months, Raj’s hope began to fade. The legal process in Dwella was notorious for its delays and bureaucracy. Arjun’s medical bills were piling up, and he struggled to make ends meet. It seemed like justice was slipping away.
Frustration grew, but Raj remained undeterred. He reached out to a group of like-minded individuals who shared his passion for justice reform. Together, they organized peaceful protests, demanding a more efficient and responsive legal system. Their rallying cry became “Justice Delayed is Justice Denied.”
News of their movement spread like wildfire, capturing the attention of the media and the public. The pressure on the government to address the issue mounted, and soon, discussions for legal reforms began.
Raj and his group continued to peacefully advocate for change, holding meetings with lawmakers, organizing awareness campaigns, and sharing stories of those who had suffered due to delayed justice. Their persistence paid off, as the government initiated a series of legal reforms aimed at expediting the judicial process.
Months turned into years, and as Raj looked back on his journey, he saw that real change was taking place. The legal system in Dwella was becoming more efficient, with a focus on faster trials and improved access to justice. Arjun’s case, which had initially inspired the movement, finally reached its conclusion. He received the compensation he deserved, and his faith in justice was restored.
As Raj stood on the steps of the renovated Dwella courthouse, he knew that the phrase “Justice Delayed is Justice Denied” would forever serve as a reminder that the pursuit of justice required unwavering determination and a commitment to change. In Dwella, the wheels of justice now turned more swiftly, ensuring that no one would have to endure the pain of delayed justice again.
Q. 8. Make sentences with each of the glossary words given on the next page.
- Acquit: The court decided to acquit the defendant due to a lack of evidence.
- To appeal: The plaintiff decided to appeal the lower court’s verdict in the High Court.
- Compensation: The victim was awarded compensation for the damages suffered in the accident.
- Eviction: The landlord initiated eviction proceedings against the tenant for non-payment of rent.
- Violation: The protest was in response to the violation of citizens’ rights by the government.
Q. 9. The following is a poster made by the Right to Food campaign.
Read this poster and list the duties of the government to uphold the Right to Food.
How does the phrase “Hungry stomachs, overflowing godowns! We will not accept it!!” used in the poster relate to the photo essay on the Right to Food on page 61?
Ans. Duties of the Government to uphold the Right to Food mentioned in the poster:
- Ensure that all persons get food.
- Ensure that no one goes to sleep hungry.
- Provide special attention to vulnerable groups like the elderly, disabled, widows, etc.
- Prevent deaths due to malnutrition or hunger.
The phrase “Hungry stomachs, overflowing godowns! We will not accept it !!” in the poster relates to the photo essay on the Right to Food by highlighting the stark contrast between widespread hunger and overflowing food storage facilities (godowns). It emphasizes the injustice of food scarcity despite abundant resources, drawing attention to the urgent need to address this issue.