CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 – “Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources” NCERT Textbook Exercise Question Answers are given here. Click here for other chapters and Study Materials.
Intext Question Answers
Intext questions include different questions, activities etc that are given inside the main text of the chapter. These are different from the exercise given after the end of the chapter.
Let’s Do (Page-9)
Q. Observe the land, type of soil, and water availability in the region you live. Discuss in your class how it has influenced the lifestyle of people there.
Ans. I live in the heart of the city, where infrastructure is well developed. Electricity, water, and other facilities are available in abundance. The main activity of the area includes secondary and tertiary activities, i.e. people are generally engaged in the production of goods or services. People lead a moderate lifestyle.
Let’s Do (Page-11)
Q. Talk to some elderly person in your neighbourhood and collect information about changes in the land over years, where you live. Display your findings on a bulletin board in your classroom.
Ans. It should be attempted by students themselves. Here is given a sample answer:
Findings displayed on a bulletin board in the classroom may be :
- Agricultural land (reduced area now)
- Buildings (More buildings now)
- Roads and Bridges (More in numbers now)
- Shopping Mall (New construction in the area)
- Industries (Number has increased)
- Parks (numbers reduced)
In India, soils could be alluvial, black, red, laterite, desertic, and mountain soil. Collect a handful of different types of soil and observe. How are these soils different?
Ans. Different types of soil and their characteristics:
(i) Alluvial soil: Formed with the silt brought by rivers during the course of their long journey. It contains adequate potash, lime, and phosphoric acid. It is generally deficient in organic and nitrogenous content. Main crops: Rice, wheat, cotton, oilseeds, and sugarcane.
(ii) Black soil: Formed by weathering of volcanic (basalt) rock formed by the Deccan lava. It is rich in lime, iron, potash, magnesium, alumina, calcium but lacks nitrogen and humus. Main crops: Cotton, tobacco, oilseeds, and sugarcane.
(iii) Red soil: Formed with decomposition of metamorphic rocks. It is rich in iron but lacks phosphorus, nitrogen, humus, and lime. Main crops: Wheat, rice, cotton, pulses, and sugarcane.
(iv) Laterite soil: Formed by intense leaching due to heavy rains and is rich in iron but is generally deficient in potassium, lime, silica, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen. Main crops: Coffee, rubber, and cashew.
(v) Desert soil: Formed by mechanical weathering of rocks from sands. High proportion of salt is there in the soil, but it is deficient in organic matter. Main crops: Wheat, bajra, melon, and grams (through irrigation).
(vi) Mountain soil: Formed mainly due to the deposition of organic matter, provided by the forests. This soil is rich in humus but poor in potash, phosphorus, and lime. It is heterogeneous in nature. Heavy doses of fertilizers have to be applied for high yields of crops. Main crops: Tea, coffee, spices, and tropical fruits in Karnataka.
An average urban Indian uses about 150 Litres of water every day. Can you suggest some ways to bring down this amount?
Ans. Along with a significant rise in population, the use of water per person is also on the rise. Following are some ways to bring down the amount of water consumption:
(i) Do not waste water unnecessarily.
(ii) Close the taps when water is not needed.
(iii) Use buckets instead of showers for bathing.
(iv) While shaving or brushing teeth, do not keep the tap running.
(v) Adopt methods such as rainwater collection for water preservation.
Textbook Exercise Solutions
Q. 1. Answer the following questions.
(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?
Ans. Temperature and rainfall are two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation. Rainfall contributes in breaking the rocks by applying pressure. Temperature fluctuations between hot and cold also form cracks in the rocks.
(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.
Ans. Reasons for land degradation are:
- (a) Encroachment of common land to build up commercial areas, housing complexes, etc.
- (b) Expansion of agricultural land in the rural area to meet the increasing demand for agricultural products.
(iii) Why is land considered an important resource?
Ans. Land is an important resource because it provides surface for agriculture, living, forestry, industries, construction, etc. Most activities take place on land.
(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.
Ans. Two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals are:
- (a) National parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves are made to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
- (b) Awareness programmes like social forestry and Vanamohatasava have been encouraged at the regional and community level
(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.
Ans. Three ways to conserve water are as under:
- (a) Rainwater harvesting: It is a method of collecting water while it rains so that it may come of use in the future.
- (b) The canals used for irrigation should be properly built so that loss of water does not take place while the water is transported to the field.
- (c) In dry regions, drip or trickle irrigation is suggested.
Q. 2. Tick the correct answer:
(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?
- (a) Time
- (b) Soil texture
- (c) Organic matter
Ans. (b) Soil texture
(ii) Which one of the following methods is the most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?
- (a) Shelter belts
- (b) Mulching
- (c) Terrace cultivation
Ans. (c) Terrace cultivation
(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature?
- (a) Switch off the bulb when not in use.
- (b) Close the tap immediately after using.
- (c) Dispose polypacks after shopping.
Ans. (c) Dispose polypacks after shopping.
3. Match the followings:
|(i)||Land use||(c) Productive use of land|
|(ii)||Humus||(d) Organic matter deposited on topsoil|
|(iii)||Rock dams||(a) Prevent soil erosion|
|(iv)||Biosphere||(b) arrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere|
4. State whether the given statement is true or false. If true, write the reasons.
(i) Ganga–Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.
(ii) Water availability per person in India is declining.
(iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping.
(iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.
(i) True – The land is suitable for agriculture.
(ii) True – Increased population; wasteful use of water and discharge of untreated sewage or industrial
effluent in water bodies are leading to low availability of water.
(iii) False – Intercropping means to grow different crops in alternate rows and are sown in different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
(iv) False – Human interference disturbs the ecosystem
Discuss some more reasons which are responsible for changes of land use pattern. Has your place undergone any change in the land use pattern in recent years?
Ans. Changes in land use patterns can be influenced by a variety of factors, including:
- Population Growth: Rapid population growth can lead to increased demand for housing, infrastructure, and agricultural land, resulting in changes in land use to accommodate these needs.
- Urbanization: The process of urbanization involves the conversion of rural areas into urban areas, leading to the expansion of cities and towns and changes in land use from agricultural to residential, commercial, and industrial purposes.
- Industrialization: The establishment of industries and manufacturing units requires land, leading to the conversion of agricultural or natural land into industrial zones.
- Infrastructure Development: Construction of roads, highways, airports, and other infrastructure projects often necessitates changes in land use to accommodate these developments.
- Technological Advancements: Advancements in technology can lead to changes in agricultural practices, such as the adoption of modern irrigation methods or precision farming techniques, resulting in alterations in land use patterns.
- Environmental Factors: Natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, and landslides can drastically change land use patterns by rendering certain areas unsuitable for their previous uses.
- Government Policies: Changes in land use can be influenced by government policies, such as land rezoning, land acquisition for public projects, or conservation efforts.
- Economic Factors: Economic conditions can drive changes in land use as communities respond to market demands for specific products or services.
- Climate Change: Changes in climate patterns can affect the suitability of land for different uses, influencing agricultural practices and land management.
it is common for land use patterns to change over time due to the factors mentioned above and other local factors. Even in my local area there have been changes in the form of more house constructions reducing the agrarian land along with reduction in number of old trees.