CBSE Class 8 NCERT History Notes: Here we are helping students with notes based on the chapter “THE MAKING OFTHE NATIONALMOVEMENT :1870s – 1947”. The notes are followed by important dates and a glossary of important terms. Click here for questions and answers to this chapter.
- Advent of Gandhiji:
Gandhiji was 46 years old when he came to India after leading the Indians in South Africa in non-violent marches against racist restrictions.
- Indian National Congress:
The Indian National Congress was established in December 1885. Around 72 delegates attended the first meeting of the Indian National Congress held in Bombay. The early important leaders were Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta, Romesh Chandra Dutt, and S. Subramania Iyer.
- Economic Issues and Congress:
Congress raised a number of economic issues to highlight economic exploitation by the British rule, such as exporting grains to England resulting in poverty and famines, increased land revenue, and impoverished peasants and zamindars in India.
- Radicals in the Congress:
Since the 1890s, the Congress party witnessed the emergence of the trend of radicals. They began to question the nature of the political methods and approach of the moderates in the Congress.
- The Swadeshi Movement:
The Swadeshi Movement emerged as a result of many demonstrations and mass protests against the partition of Bengal in 1905. The movement was very strong in Bengal, encouraging ideas of self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education, and the use of Indian languages.
- The Separate Electorates:
Separate electorates referred to the reservation of some seats for the Muslim Community in the councils. This demand was made by the League in 1905, supporting the British government’s partition of Bengal.
- The All India Muslim League:
The All India Muslim League was formed at Dacca in 1906 by a group of Muslim landlords and Nawabs. It supported the partition of Bengal because of its desire for separate electorates for Muslims.
- The Congress Split:
The Congress split in 1907 because the Moderates were opposed to the use of boycott by the Radicals. The Moderates dominated the Congress after its split. The Radicals and the Moderates of the Congress reunited in December 1915.
- Demands of Moderates:
The moderates demanded a greater voice for Indians at higher positions in government and administration. They also demanded the legislative councils to increase the number of representatives by including Indians. They demanded the introduction of legislative councils in the provinces.
- The Lucknow Pact:
The Lucknow Pact was the historic agreement signed in 1916 between the Congress and the All India Muslim League. Both parties decided to work together for the representative government in the country.
- The Khilafat Agitation:
The Indian Muslim Community launched the Khilafat Agitation. Its two important leaders were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. It was launched against the Britishers’ imposition of a harsh treaty (Treaty of Sevres) on the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa.
- The Non-Cooperation Movement:
The leaders of the Khilafat Agitation, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, persuaded Gandhiji to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji accepted it and urged the Congress to protest and demonstrate against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the Khilafat wrongdoing, and in favor of Swaraj.
- The Chauri Chaura Incident:
Gandhiji was against the use of violent methods and movements. He called off the Non-Cooperation Movement abruptly due to the Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were killed when a crowd of peasants set fire to the police station in February 1922.
- The Rowlatt Satyagraha:
In 1919, Gandhiji launched an anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha, which received a countrywide response. April 6, 1919, was observed as the day of “humiliation and prayers” and hartal (strike). Satyagraha Sabhas were held throughout the country.
- The Rowlatt Act:
The Britishers passed the Rowlatt Act in India, under which people could be imprisoned without trial. This act was called the ‘Black Act’. It strengthened the power of the police.
- The Simon Commission:
In 1927, the British government in England sent a commission headed by Lord Simon to decide India’s political future. The commission did not have any Indian representative, leading to protests by Indians.
- The Salt March:
In 1930, Gandhiji decided to lead a march to break the Salt Law. The march began at Sabarmati Ashram and ended at the coastal village of Dandi, where Gandhiji broke the Salt Law by gathering salt naturally found on the seashore.
- Dissatisfaction of Indians:
Various acts and bills introduced by the Britishers intensified dissatisfaction among Indians with British rule.
- Quit India Movement:
In 1942, Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement against the Britishers. The movement urged the Britishers to quit India and followed a popular slogan “Do or Die,” calling upon the people to fully effort to fight against the Britishers in a non-violent manner.
- League and Independent States:
The All India Muslim League moved a resolution demanding “Independent States” for Muslims in the 1940s. The League located its “Independent States” in the north-western and eastern areas of the country.
Certainly! Here is the information presented in tabular form:
|The Arms Act and the Vernacular Press Act were passed.
|Establishment of the Indian National Congress.
|Partition of Bengal, beginning of the Swadeshi Movement.
|Establishment of All India Muslim League.
|Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa.
|Lucknow Pact to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity.
|Beginning of Rowlatt Satyagraha.
|Beginning of Non-Cooperation Movement.
|Non-Cooperation Movement called off by Gandhiji.
|The Congress decided to fight to achieve ‘Purna Swaraj’ (complete independence).
|26th January 1930
|Independence Day was observed across India.
|Mahatma Gandhi started the Dandi March.
|Second World War started.
|Beginning of the Quit India Movement.
|The Britishers opened negotiations with the Congress and Muslim League for the independence of India. The talks failed as the League demanded new Pakistan.
|Partition of the country into India and Pakistan.
- Swadeshi: The broad meaning of Swadeshi is ‘‘the use of all homemade things and the exclusion of foreign things.’’
- Satyagraha: Satyagraha is the policy of non-violent resistance developed by Mahatma Gandhi as a means of pressing for political reforms in South Africa and India.
- Sovereign: Sovereign means the capacity to act independently without outside interference.
- Publicist: Publicist is the one who publicizes an idea by circulating information, writing reports, speaking at meetings, etc.
- Repeal: Repeal refers to officially ending the validity of a law.
- Revolutionary violence: Revolutionary violence refers to the use of violence to make a radical change within society.
- Council: Council is an appointed or elected body of people with an administrative, advisory, or representative function.
- Knighthood: Knighthood is an honor granted by the British Crown for exceptional personal achievement or public service.
- Picket: Picket is an act of protest by the people outside a building or shop to prevent others from entering.
- Illegal Eviction: Illegal eviction is a forcible and unlawful throwing out of tenants from the land they rent.
- Provincial Autonomy: Provincial autonomy is the capacity of the province to make relatively independent decisions while remaining within a federation.
- “General” Constituencies: “General” constituencies are election districts with no reservations for any religious or other communities.
- Nationalism: A feeling of pride for one’s own country.
- Sarvajanik: Public
- Swaraj: Self-rule government
- Moderates: A group in Congress who believed that struggles should be peaceful. It had immense faith in British rule.
- Radicals: A group of people with new opinions and beliefs in the Congress. They opposed the methods of the moderates.
- Refugee: A person who is forced to leave his native country due to political, religious, or social cause.