Class 8 Pol Sc. Public Facilities Question & Answers

Intext-question & Answers

Q. 1. You’ve seen the four situations illustrated above. Based on these, what impression do you get of the water situation in Chennai?
Ans. The water situation in Chennai is very miserable.

Q. 2. Pick out the various sources of water for household use from the description alongside?
Ans. Tubewells, Borewells, Wells, Piped water.

Q. 3. What in your view, is similar, and what is different in Subramanian’s and Padma’s experience?
Ans. Both of them face water shortage. However, being economically strong, Subramanian can purchase water from tanker, but being poor, Padma cannot afford to buy it, so she depends on the water that comes from borewell.

Q. 4. Write a paragraph describing the water supply situation in your area?
Ans. In our area, the water crisis is severe. The tap water which we get from municipality corporation is not suitable for drinking or cooking purpose. This water comes from the river Yamuna which is highly polluted. After treating, it is supplied by the municipality. Most of the people purchase mineral water for drinking. The underground water is brackish so it cannot be used for drinking, washing or cooking purpose.

Q. 5. Why does water flow in a trickle in summer in most place in India? Find out.
Ans. The Government must assume the overall responsibility to ensure that the facilities are available to all the people at a reasonable price.

Q. 6. Discuss: Is there a general shortage of water for everyone in Chennai? Can you think of two reasons why different people get varying amounts of water?
Ans. Yes, there is a general shortage of water for everyone in Chennai. Different people get varying amounts of water because:
(i) of their location from the source of water supply.
(ii) of their economic condition.

Q. 7.
Amu: Did you notice that the roads in Saidapet were so bumpy and without streetlights? I wonder what the place is like at night.
Kumar: What better can you expect in a slum!
Amu: Why should slums be like that? Shouldn’t they have public facilities?
Kumar: I think public facilities are for all those who live in proper houses in colonies. They are the people who pay taxes.
Amu: Why do you say that! Slum dwellers are also citizens and they have a right too.
Kumar: Arrey! The government will go bankrupt this way!
Amu: Well, it has to find a way. Can you imagine what it would be like to live in a slum without proper roads, water, electricity?
Kumar: Err_____
Amu: Our Constitution recognizes many of the public facilities as being a part of Right to Life. The government must see that these rights are protected so that everyone can lead a decent life.
Whose point of view do you agree with?
Ans. I agree with Amu’s point of view.

Q. 8. What are public facilities? Why should the government be responsible for providing public facilities?
Ans. The facilities like healthcare, sanitation, electricity, schools, colleges and public transport are known as public facilities. Government is responsible for providing public facilities because these facilities form a part of Right to Life.

Q. 9. The Government can get private companies to deliver some of the public facilities. For instance, contracts for building roads are given to private contractors. Distribution of electricity in Delhi is done by two private companies. However, the government must keep a close watch on these and ensure that they fulfill their commitments to reach these facilities to all people and at affordable prices.
Why do you think the government must assume the overall responsibility for public facilities even when it gets private companies to do part of the job?

Ans. The government is responsible for providing public facilities as these are necessary for people to lead their day to day lives. These facilities must be affordable for all. Since private companies operate for profit, they are more likely to look at the cost of investment for such facilities and would aim to recover their costs. Hence, government must assume the overall responsibility to make the public facilities affordable to everyone.

Q. 10. Look at your water bill and find out what the minimum rate is for municipal water in your area. Does the rate increase as the use of water increases? Why do you think the government charges a higher rate for greater use of water?
Ans. (For Self Attempt) Hint: Yes, the rate increases as the use of water increases. The government charges a higher rate to meet different expenses to provide water supply.

Q. 11. Find out various kinds of taxes people pay to the government by talking to a salaried person, a person running his or her own factory/business and a shopkeeper. Share your findings in the classroom with your teacher?
Ans. (For Self Attempt) Hints: Salaried Person: Income Tax, House Tax, Water Tax, Sale Tax.
Factory owner/Businessman/Shopkeeper: Income Tax, Sale Tax, GST, etc.

Q. 12. Discuss: Do you think this would be a right step? What do you think would happen if the government withdraws from the task of supplying water?
Ans. No, it would not be a right step. If the government withdraws from the task of supplying water, then private companies will charge a very high cost for supplying water which may become unaffordable for many. This may create a chance for violence.

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Q. 13. Discuss the main ideas in the above section. What do you think can be done to improve water supply?
Ans. The main idea of the above section is that the government is responsible for proper water supply. The government must find out the way to improve the water supply condition. To improve water supply, the government must improve its performance in revenue collection The government must promote rainwater harvesting to increase the level of groundwater.

Q. 14. Do you think it is also important to conserve resources like water and electricity and to use more public transport?
Yes, it is important to conserve resources like water and electricity. By using public transport, we can also save petroleum.

Q. 15. Do you think that lack of access to proper sanitation facilities affect the people’s lives? How?
Ans. Yes, lack of sanitation can cause many water-borne diseases and affect the people’s lives.

Q. 16. Why do you think that this would impact women and girls more acutely?
Ans. For Self Attempt. Here a sample answer is given:

Lack of access to proper sanitation facilities significantly affects people’s lives in various ways. However, this impact is often more acute for women and girls due to several reasons:

  1. Health Risks: Without proper sanitation facilities, women and girls are at a higher risk of contracting waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery. These illnesses can lead to serious health complications and even death, particularly for pregnant women and young girls.
  2. Safety and Dignity: In many cultures, women and girls face safety concerns when they have to travel long distances to find a private place to defecate or urinate. The lack of proper sanitation facilities exposes them to the risk of harassment, sexual assault, and violence. Additionally, the absence of private toilet facilities can compromise their dignity and privacy, especially during menstruation.
  3. Impact on Education: In areas where sanitation facilities are inadequate or absent in schools, girls are more likely to miss classes, particularly during menstruation. This can result in lower educational attainment for girls compared to boys, perpetuating gender disparities in education and limiting their future opportunities.
  4. Menstrual Hygiene Management: Proper sanitation facilities are crucial for managing menstrual hygiene effectively. Without access to clean water, private toilets, and facilities for disposing of menstrual hygiene products, girls may resort to unhygienic practices that can lead to infections and reproductive health issues.
  5. Social Stigma and Shame: The lack of proper sanitation facilities can contribute to the stigmatization of menstruation and reproductive health issues, leading to feelings of shame and embarrassment among women and girls. This can further perpetuate cultural taboos surrounding menstruation and hinder their ability to seek help and support.

Overall, addressing the lack of access to proper sanitation facilities is essential for promoting gender equality, protecting women and girls’ health and safety, and ensuring their full participation in education, work, and community life.

Textbook Exercises

Q. 1. Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?
Ans. There are so few cases of private water supply in the world due to the following reasons:
(i) Earlier, when responsibility for water supply was handed over to private companies, there was a steep rise in the price of water, making it unaffordable for many.
(ii) Many cities faced huge protests and riots because of privatization of water supply. For example, Bolivia.

Q. 2. Do you think water in Chennai is available and affordable by all? Discuss.
No, water supply in Chennai is not available and affordable by all. There is a shortage of water supply in Chennai. The Municipal supply meets only about half the needs of the people of the city. The areas which are close to the storage point get more water, whereas the areas which are far away receive very little water.

Q. 3. How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of ground water? Can the government do anything in this regard?
Many private companies are providing water to cities due to the shortage of water supply by the government organization. These companies buy water from places around the city.

In Chennai, water is taken from nearby towns like Mamandur, Palur, Karunguzhi, and from villages to the north of the city using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers.

Every month the water dealers pay farmers an advance for the rights to exploit water sources on their land. The water that is taken away from the farms is creating a deficit for irrigation and for drinking water for the villagers.

There is also a drastic drop in ground water levels in these areas. The local people have a right to object to this exploitation and the government has the power to stop this.

Q. 4. Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
Most of the private hospitals and private schools are located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas because at these places many people cannot afford to pay the cost of expenses in private hospitals or the fees of the private schools.

Q. 5. Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.
No, the distribution of public facilities in our country is not adequate and fair. Public facilities like water and electricity are not adequate. Most of the towns in India do not get proper electric supply for continuous twenty-four hours. Still, there are many villages in India where the electric supply has not reached till today.

Q. 6. Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity, etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.
Note: Answer of this question will vary from students to students depending on their place of residence. An example is given here.

Public FacilityIs it available?How can it be improved?
WaterNo(i) Municipal Corporation should take steps to provide sufficient amount of water. (ii) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
ElectricityYes, but only for twelve to fourteen hoursIllegal use of electricity should be stopped.
RoadsYes, but their condition is very badThe concerned authority must maintain them properly.
Public TransportYesMain bus, metro rail, etc. should be introduced.

Q. 7. Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.
The above public facilities are not shared equally by all the people. The people living in backward areas or in slums do not get safe and pure drinking water. They have to carry water from long distances. The electricity is not available in many slum areas. They use electricity in an illegal manner by fixing hooks on main lines. The roads in the backward and slum areas are in bad condition.

Q. 8. Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the census is conducted?
Note: For Self Attempt. The class teacher should discuss the procedure of Census in the class. Hint: the Census is conducted every ten years.

Q. 9. Private educational institutions—schools, colleges universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.
There are many causes due to which the government institutions are becoming less important:
(i) The teachers do not pay proper attention to the students.
(ii) Advanced technologies are not available in such institutions.
(iii) Lab facilities are also not adequate.
(iv) Teachers take very less interest in giving proper education.
(v) Lack of extra co-curricular activities in such institutions.

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