Food Security in India – Q/Ans Class 9 Economics

‘Food Security in India’ Chapter Class 9 NCERT Economics Question and Answers are given here.

Answers to NCERT Questions

Q. 1. How is food security ensured in India?
Ans. Food security is ensured in India by ensuring the availability of food to all sections of society. The Indian government has implemented initiatives such as buffer stock and the public distribution system. Additionally, various poverty alleviation programs like Integrated Child Development Services, Mid-Day Meals, and Antyodaya Anna Yojana contribute to this goal.

Q. 2. Which people are more prone to food insecurity?
Ans. People or groups most prone to food insecurity include landless individuals, traditional artisans, and beggars, as they often earn low wages and face long-term unemployment. Additionally, those susceptible to natural disasters such as continuous droughts or floods are also at risk of food insecurity.

Q. 3. Which states are more food insecure in India?
Ans. Economically backward states with high levels of poverty, tribal populations, remote areas, and regions prone to natural disasters exhibit higher levels of food insecurity. States like Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra have significant populations facing food insecurity.

Q. 4. Do you believe that the Green Revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?
Ans. Yes, the Green Revolution has indeed made India self-sufficient in food grains. Continuous crop cultivation throughout the year, facilitated by the Green Revolution, has enabled the maintenance of buffer stocks. Even during adverse seasons, India has not experienced famine due to increased agricultural productivity.

Q. 5. “A section of people in India are still without food”. Explain.
Ans. Despite food availability, distribution challenges persist in India. Buffer stocks may exist in states like Punjab, but issues related to infrastructure and transportation hinder their distribution to regions in need, such as Jharkhand. Additionally, poverty prevents some individuals from purchasing or storing food, while others lack access to nutritionally rich food.

Q. 6. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or calamity?
Ans. Natural calamities decrease total food grain production, leading to shortages and increased food prices in affected areas. Some individuals may be unable to afford food at elevated prices. Additionally, damage to transportation infrastructure restricts the supply of food from unaffected regions, potentially exacerbating food shortages and leading to famine in severe cases.

Q. 7. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?
Ans. Chronic hunger results from continuously inadequate food quantity or quality due to low income, affecting poor individuals who struggle to afford sufficient or nutritious food. Seasonal hunger, prevalent in rural areas due to seasonal agricultural activities, stems from fluctuations in income earned through seasonal work. Urban areas may experience seasonal hunger due to irregular incomes from casual labor.

Q. 8. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government.
Ans. The government has implemented various schemes to ensure food security for the poor. Two notable schemes include:
(i) Public Distribution System: This system distributes subsidized basic commodities through fair price shops nationwide.
(ii) Antyodaya Anna Yojana: Targeting the poorest families below the poverty line, this scheme provides highly subsidized food grains, with 35kg allocated to each eligible family.

Q. 9. Why is buffer stock created by the government?
Ans. The government creates buffer stocks to distribute food grains to deficit areas and poorer sections of society at prices lower than the market rate. Buffer stocks also mitigate food shortages during poor harvest seasons or calamities.

Q. 10. Write notes on:
(i) Minimum Support Price (MSP): The MSP is the price at which the government purchases crops from farmers, distinct from market prices. It supports farmers and ensures adequate food grain production.
(ii) Buffer Stock: Comprising food grains stored by the government, buffer stocks are procured at MSP and distributed in deficit areas or during food shortages.
(iii) Issue Price: This is the price at which procured and buffer stock food grains are sold through the Public Distribution System, higher than MSP but lower than market prices.
(iv) Fair Price Shops: Also known as ration shops, these establishments sell subsidized items such as wheat, rice, kerosene, and sugar to those holding ration cards, forming a crucial part of the Public Distribution System (PDS).

Q. 11. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
Ans. Cooperative societies play a significant role in providing food and related items to the economically disadvantaged. These societies set up shops selling low-priced goods, ensuring access to essential commodities. Examples include Mother Dairy and Amul, which provide milk and milk products at controlled rates. Additionally, cooperatives like the Academy of Development Science (ADS) facilitate the establishment of grain banks through networks of NGOs, further supporting food security initiatives.

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