People As Resource Question & Answers Class 9 Economics CBSE

People As Resource Question & Answers Class 9 Economics CBSE: The answers include intext-questions as well as the chapter “People as a resource’ exercise questions. Click here for other chapters of Class 9 Economics.

In-text Questions & Answers

Let’s Discuss (Page 17)

Looking at the photograph can you explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer and a tailor are an asset to the economy?


(i) A population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education training and medical care.

(ii) Human capital is the stock of skills and productive knowledge embodied in them.

(iii) Investment made in the form of education and training in making a doctor, a teacher an engineer an a tailor, has increased their capabilities of providing different services to the people of the country and therefore they are an asset to the economy of a nation.

Page – 18

1. Do you notice any difference between the two friends? What are those?

Answer: The differences between the two friends Sakal and Vilas were

  • (i) Vilas’s father died when Vilas was two years old whereas Sakal was living with his parents.
  • (ii) Sakal went to school but Vilas did not go to school.
  • (iii) Sakal was interested in studies whereas Vilas was not interested in studies.
  • (iv) Sakal did a course in computers and became employed whereas Vilas remained illiterate and was not employed.
  • (v) The condition of Sakal and his family became better whereas Vilas and his family lived in poverty.


2. Visit a nearby village or a slum area and write down a case study of a boy or girl of your age facing the same condition as Vilas or Sakal.

Answer: During my visit to a neighbouring village, I came across a situation that mirrored the challenges faced by Vilas and Sakal. One girl named Amina, who shares my age of 14, caught my attention. Amina resides in a slum area on the outskirts of the village. Her family, much like Vilas’s, struggles with poverty and lack of opportunities.

Amina’s days start early, helping her parents scavenge for recyclables in order to earn a meagre income. Their makeshift dwelling is composed of salvaged materials, providing little protection against the elements. Like Sakal, Amina’s family lacks access to proper sanitation and clean drinking water, making them vulnerable to various health issues.

Despite her enthusiasm for learning, Amina’s educational journey has been fraught with obstacles. The nearest school is quite a distance away, and her family’s financial constraints have made attending school regularly an impossibility. She can only dream of acquiring an education beyond the basic elementary level.

Amina’s story is one of resilience in the face of adversity. She aspires to break free from the cycle of poverty and contribute positively to her community. However, without the necessary resources and opportunities, her potential remains largely untapped, much like Vilas’s and Sakal’s.

Page – 19

Based on the picture (Picture 2.3) can you classify these activities into three sectors?


PhotoDepicted ActivitySector
Top PhotoAgriculturePrimary Sector
Middle PhotoManufacturingSecondary Sector
Bottom PhotoShippingTertiary Sector

Activity (Page – 20)

Visit a village or colony ……….. categorise their work?
Say whether these activities are economic or non-economic activities: Vilas sells fish in the village market. Vilas cooks food for his family. Sakal works in the private firm. Sakal looks after his younger brother and sister.


ActivityNature of Activity
Vilas sells fish in the village market.Economic Activity
Vilas cooks food for his family.Non-economic Activity
Sakal works in the private firm.Economic Activity
Sakal looks after his younger siblings.Non-economic Activity

Lte’s Discuss (Page – 21)

Study the graph and answer the following questions:

1. Has the literacy rates of the population increased since 1951?
2. In which year India has the highest literacy rates?
3. Why literacy rate is high among the males of India?
4. Why are women less educated than men?
5. How would you calculate literacy rate in India?
6. What is your projection about India’s literacy rate in 2025?


  1. Yes
  2. 2017
  3. India has a patriarchal male dominated society where more importance is given to males. Culturally due to division of labour the males go out of their homes and get better access to education. Poor families due to monetary constraints prefer to send only their sons to school and not their daughters.
  4. Women have historically been afforded fewer educational opportunities than men due to a prevalent bias favouring boys or sons within families. This preference arises from the perception that boys hold the responsibility of carrying forward the family’s legacy. Traditionally, girls were confined to domestic roles, thus discouraging their pursuit of education. These factors have collectively contributed to the disparity in education levels between men and women.
  5. The literacy rate in a country is typically calculated using the following formula:

This formula calculates the literacy rate as a percentage by dividing the number of literate individuals by the total population and then multiplying by 100 to express the result as a percentage. Keep in mind that the age cutoff for considering someone as literate might vary depending on the country’s specific criteria.

6. The literacy may stand between 78 to 88 %

Activity (Page – 22)

Count the number of boys and girls studying in your school or in your neighbouring co-ed school. Ask the school administrator to provide you with the data of boys and girls studying in the classroom. Study the difference if any and explain for reasons in the classroom.

Answer: You’re likely to observe a decrease in the percentage of girls relative to boys as you move from younger to older age groups. This disparity indicates a higher dropout rate among girls compared to boys. These dropout patterns can be attributed to reasons akin to those previously discussed concerning literacy, with an additional factor being that, in certain households, girls are held back from attending school due to their own health issues or the absence of their mother, compelling them to assist with domestic tasks.

Let’s Discuss (Page – 22)

Discuss this table in the classroom and answer the following questions.

1. Is the increase in the number of colleges adequate to admit the increasing number of students?
2. Do you think we should have more number of universities?
3. What is the increase noticed among the teachers in the year 2015–16.
4. What is your idea about future colleges and universities?


  1. The growth in the number of colleges is insufficient to accommodate the rising influx of students due to the students’ increasing numbers outpacing the establishment of new colleges.
  2. Seeing the ever-increasing number of students, we should establish more universities to cater to their needs. But at the same time greater stress should be on opening more and more colleges.
  3. There was an increase of 1,76,650 teachers in the year 2015–16 compared to 2014-15.
  4. In the future, colleges and universities should emphasize the incorporation of vocational education. Additionally, there ought to be an emphasis on distance learning and the integration of formal and informal education, leveraging both distance and IT-based educational institutions.
  5. It is also recommended to establish colleges in rural regions, catering to the educational needs of rural students. In these institutions, the primary goal should be delivering education that revolves around the needs and preferences of the students themselves.

Let’s Discuss (Page – 23)

Study Table 2.2 and answer the following questions.

1. What is the percentage increase in dispensaries from 1951 to 2020?
2. What is the percentage increase in doctors and nursing personnel from 1951 to 2020?
3. Do you think the increase in the number of doctors and nurses is adequate for India? If not, why?
4. What other facilities would you like to provide in a hospital?
5. Discuss about the hospital you have visited?
6. Can you draw a graph using this table.


  1. Not possible from the data given in the table
  2. Not possible from the data given in the table
  3. No, the increase in the number of doctors and nurses is inadequate because the ratio of both doctors and nursing personnel is still too low for India’s population.
  4. Here are the desired hospital amenities rephrased:
    (i) Hospitals should maintain impeccable cleanliness and hygiene standards.
    (ii) All hospitals should be equipped with emergency wards and ambulance services.
    (iii) Continuous availability of doctors should be ensured round the clock.
    (iv) Pharmacies should be conveniently situated within the hospital premises.
    (v) Simplification and reduction of documentation should be aimed for both outpatient and inpatient services.
  5. During my visit to a hospital in a city:
    (i) I observed that this multi-speciality hospital encompasses 320 beds and offers top-tier medical services.
    (ii) The hospital boasts cutting-edge operation theatres and houses a fully functional blood bank.
    (iii) A wide array of advanced machines is present to conduct diverse diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, MRI, and more.
    (iv) The hospital is well-equipped with a modern pathology laboratory.
    (v) Notably, the facility houses a range of medical specialists representing various fields of medicine.
    (vi) Anand Hospital serves not only the entire city but also extends its services to the surrounding rural areas.
    (vii) The hospital provides comfort through central air conditioning and even features an in-house medical store.
    (viii) However, a noteworthy drawback is that due to its private nature, the treatment costs for patients are relatively high.

    When I visited a rural hospital:
    (i) The hospital had a limited capacity of just a few beds, and the medical facilities were inadequate.
    (ii) Outdated operation theatres and a lack of a proper blood bank were noticeable shortcomings.
    (iii) Essential diagnostic equipment such as ultrasound and MRI machines were noticeably absent.
    (iv) The pathology lab seemed under-equipped and lacked modern resources. (v) The absence of specialists from various medical fields was evident, leaving patients with limited healthcare options.
    (vi) The hospital struggled to meet the healthcare needs of the local population and nearby rural areas.
    (vii) Basic amenities like central air conditioning were lacking, and there was no on-site medical store.
    (viii) Unfortunately, the dire state of affairs was highlighted by the unaffordability of treatment for many due to the hospital’s limited resources and rural location.

Textbook Questions & Answers

1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?


  • ‘People as a resource’ refers to the concept of viewing a population as a valuable asset rather than a liability.
  • It emphasizes that when individuals are educated, skilled, and healthy, they can actively contribute to a nation’s economic and social development.
  • This perspective acknowledges that human potential can be harnessed to drive progress in various sectors.

2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?


  • Human resources involve the skills, knowledge, and capabilities of individuals, whereas land and physical capital refer to tangible assets.
  • Unlike land or physical capital, human resources are not fixed; they can be developed, improved, and upgraded.
  • Human resources are versatile and adaptable, enabling individuals to engage in a wide range of activities.

3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?


  • Education equips individuals with knowledge, skills, and abilities, enhancing their productivity and employability.
  • It contributes to economic growth by fostering innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • Education is crucial for human capital development, as it empowers individuals to actively participate in economic and social progress.

4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?


  • Good health ensures a healthy and productive workforce, reducing absenteeism and enhancing productivity.
  • It extends an individual’s working life and lowers healthcare costs, contributing to overall economic development.
  • Health is integral to human capital formation, as it directly impacts an individual’s capacity to engage in productive activities.

5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?


  • Good health allows individuals to work efficiently and for more extended periods, increasing their overall contribution to society and the economy.
  • It reduces the likelihood of work-related illnesses and absenteeism.
  • Health plays a pivotal role in determining an individual’s physical and mental capacity for work.

6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector, and tertiary sector?


  • Primary sector activities involve the extraction or cultivation of natural resources, such as farming, fishing, and mining.
  • Secondary sector activities include manufacturing and processing, such as factories and industrial production.
  • Tertiary sector activities are services-based, including healthcare, education, retail, and finance.

7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?


  • Economic activities involve the production and distribution of goods and services for monetary gain.
  • Non-economic activities are actions performed without the primary goal of earning income, such as household chores or volunteering.

8. Why are women employed in low paid work?


  • Women are often employed in low-paid work due to a range of social, cultural, and economic factors.
  • These include traditional gender roles, discrimination, lack of access to education and skills development, and limited employment opportunities in certain sectors.

9. How will you explain the term unemployment?

Answer: Unemployment refers to the condition in which individuals who are willing and able to work cannot find suitable employment. It is a measure of the labor force that is actively seeking employment but is unable to secure it.

10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?


  • Disguised unemployment occurs when more people are engaged in an activity than required for its efficient operation.
  • Seasonal unemployment is tied to seasonal fluctuations in demand for certain types of labour, resulting in unemployment during specific seasons.

11. Why is educated unemployment a peculiar problem in India?

Answer: Educated unemployment is prevalent due to a mismatch between the skills and qualifications of job seekers and available job opportunities.

12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?

Answer: India has the potential to build the maximum employment opportunities in sectors such as information technology, manufacturing, healthcare, agriculture, and renewable energy.

These sectors have shown significant growth and can absorb a considerable workforce with the right policies and investments.

13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?


  • – Align curricula with industry needs.
  • – Provide vocational training and skill development programs.
  • – Promote entrepreneurship and innovation.
  • – Foster a culture of research and development.

14. Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?

Answer: Villages that initially had no job opportunities but later developed them often see this transformation through initiatives such as government schemes, infrastructure development, establishment of local businesses, and increased access to education and training.

These factors can stimulate economic activities and job creation in previously underdeveloped areas.

15. Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital, or human capital? Why?


  • Human capital is often considered the most valuable due to its ability to drive innovation, productivity, and overall economic growth.
  • A well-educated and healthy workforce can effectively utilize other forms of capital, such as land and physical capital, to achieve higher levels of economic prosperity.

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