Physical Features of India Question & Answers Class 9 Geography: The Intext-questions (Find Out Questions) Chapter end exercises have been solved here. Click here for other chapters of geography Class 9.
Intext-Question & Answers
(i) The names of the glaciers and passes that lie in the Great Himalayas.
(ii) The name of the states where the highest peaks are located.
Glaciers in the Great Himalayas:
- Siachen Glacier: Located in the Karakoram Range, not far from the Great Himalayas, it is one of the largest glaciers outside the polar regions.
Passes in the Great Himalayas:
- Zoji La: Located in Jammu and Kashmir, it is a high mountain pass that provides a vital link between the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh.
- Banihal Pass: Also in Jammu and Kashmir, it connects the Jammu region with the Kashmir Valley.
- Shipki La: Located in Himachal Pradesh, it serves as an international pass between India and Tibet.
- Nathu La: It is a mountain pass in Sikkim, which also serves as an international border crossing with China.
- Mana Pass: Situated in Uttarakhand, it is a high mountain pass on the India-Tibet border.
States Where the Highest Peaks Are Located:
- Nepal: Mt. Everest (8848 meters) – The highest peak in the world.
- Kanchenjunga (8598 meters) is on the border of the Indian state of Sikkim and Nepal.
- Nanga Parbat (8126 meters) is in the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Nanda Devi (7817 meters) is in the state of Uttarakhand.
- Kamet (7756 meters) is also in the state of Uttarakhand.
- Namcha Barwa (7756 meters) is in the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.
Find out: Location of Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet from your atlas and also name the state where they are located.
Here is the location of Mussoorie, Nainital, and Ranikhet along with the states where they are located:
- Location: Mussoorie is located in the northern part of India.
- State: It is situated in the state of Uttarakhand.
- Location: Nainital is situated in the northern part of India.
- State: It is located in the state of Uttarakhand.
- Location: Ranikhet is also located in the northern part of India.
- State: It is situated in the state of Uttarakhand.
Textbook Exercise Question & Answers
1. Choose the right answer:
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast (c) Peninsula
(b) Island (d) None of the above
Ans (c) Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called
(a) Himachal (c) Purvachal
(b) Uttarakhand (d) None of the above
Ans (c) Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel (c) Kannad
(b) Konkan (d) Northern Circar
Ans (b) Konkan
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi (c) Mahendragiri
(b) Kanchenjunga (d) Khasi
Ans (c) Mahendragiri
2. Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What is the bhabar?
Ans. Bhabar is a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width parallel to the slopes of the Shiwalik mountains in the northern plains. It is an area where streams and rivers descending from the mountains deposit pebbles.
(ii) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans. The three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are the Great Himalayas (Himadri), the Lesser Himalayas (Himachal), and the Outer Himalayas (Shiwaliks).
(iii) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Ans. The Malwa Plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges.
(iv) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Ans. The island group of India having coral origin is the Lakshadweep Islands.
3. Distinguish between:
(i) Bhangar and Khadar
- Bhangar is the older alluvium and lies above the floodplains of rivers. It is relatively higher and contains calcareous deposits (kankar). It is less fertile than khadar.
- Khadar is the newer, younger alluvium found on the floodplains. It is renewed almost every year and is highly fertile, ideal for intensive agriculture.
- Tabular Representation
|Location||Older alluvium above the floodplains of rivers.||Younger alluvium found on the floodplains of rivers.|
|Soil Composition||Contains calcareous deposits||Highly fertile, renewed annually.|
|Fertility||Less fertile compared to khadar||Highly fertile due to annual replenishment.|
|Formation||Older alluvium formed over an extended period.||Younger alluvium deposited more frequently.|
|Agricultural Use||Less suitable for intensive agriculture.||Ideal for intensive agriculture.|
(ii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
- Western Ghats run parallel to the western coast of India and are continuous. They are higher and receive more rainfall, causing orographic rain on their western slopes.
- Eastern Ghats run parallel to the eastern coast and are discontinuous and irregular. They are lower in elevation and dissected by rivers that drain into the Bay of Bengal.
|Characteristic||Western Ghats||Eastern Ghats|
|Location||Run parallel to the western coast of India.||Run parallel to the eastern coast of India.|
|Continuity||Continuous and can be crossed through passes.||Discontinuous and irregular, dissected by rivers.|
|Elevation||Higher elevation compared to Eastern Ghats.||Lower elevation compared to Western Ghats.|
|Rainfall Influence||Receive more rainfall due to orographic effect.||Receive less rainfall from the Bay of Bengal.|
|Name Variations||Known by different local names along its length.||Known by different names along its length.|
4. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
The major physiographic divisions of India are the Himalayan Mountains, Northern Plains, Peninsular Plateau, Indian Desert, Coastal Plains, and Islands.
Contrast between the relief of the Himalayan region and the Peninsular plateau:
- The Himalayan region is a young, fold mountain system with high peaks, deep valleys, and fast-flowing rivers. In contrast, the Peninsular plateau is an old, stable landmass with broad valleys and rounded hills.
- The Himalayas are characterized by perennial snow, glaciers, and a youthful topography, whereas the Peninsular plateau has a more diverse climate and landscape.
- The Himalayan region is a source of major rivers, while the Peninsular plateau has a well-developed river system that flows eastward towards the Bay of Bengal.
- The Peninsular plateau is rich in mineral resources, while the Himalayan region has limited mineral deposits.
Tabular Representation of the major physiographic divisions of India, contrasting the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau:
|Aspect||Himalayan Region||Peninsular Plateau|
|Age||Geologically young (recently formed)||Geologically old (ancient landmass)|
|Formation||Fold mountain system with tectonic activity||Stable landmass with minimal tectonic activity|
|Topography||High peaks, deep valleys, fast-flowing rivers||Broad valleys, rounded hills|
|Climate||Perennial snow, glaciers, youthful topography||Diverse climate and landscape|
|Rivers||Source of major rivers like the Ganga, Brahmaputra||Rivers primarily flow eastward to the Bay of Bengal|
|Minerals||Limited mineral deposits||Rich in mineral resources|
|Vegetation||Varied, including alpine vegetation, forests||Varied, including deciduous forests|
|Economic Activities||Tourism, adventure sports||Agriculture, industries|
|Significance||Major source of water and forest wealth||Storehouse of minerals, vital for industrialization|
5. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
The Northern Plains of India are a vast and fertile region that stretches from the foothills of the Himalayas to the northern boundary of the Indian subcontinent. Key characteristics include:
- Alluvial soil: The plains are formed by the deposition of alluvium carried down by rivers, making the soil highly fertile.
- Rivers: Major rivers like the Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, and their tributaries flow through this region, providing a natural irrigation system.
- Agriculture: The Northern Plains are known as the “granaries of India” due to their high agricultural productivity. They are a major food-producing region.
- Dense population: The plains have a high population density due to favorable agricultural conditions.
- Settlements: Numerous cities and towns are located in the Northern Plains, including Delhi, Kanpur, and Kolkata.
- Industries: The region is an industrial hub, with numerous factories and manufacturing centers.
6. Write short notes on the following:
(i) The Indian Desert
Ans The Indian Desert is located in the western part of India, primarily in the state of Rajasthan. Key features include:
- Arid climate: The region experiences very low rainfall (below 150 mm per year) and has a hot desert climate.
- Sand dunes: The desert is characterized by undulating sandy plains with sand dunes, including longitudinal dunes near the Indo-Pakistan border.
- Luni River: The Luni River is the only major river in the region, but many streams disappear into the sand due to low water levels.
- Sparse vegetation: The Indian Desert has limited vegetation cover, and streams that appear during the rainy season often disappear into the sand.
(ii) The Central Highlands
Ans. The Central Highlands are located in central India and include parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Rajasthan. Key features include:
- Plateau region: The area is characterized by plateaus, hills, and river valleys.
- Vindhyan and Satpura ranges: These mountain ranges bound the Central Highlands and provide a rugged landscape.
- Rivers: Several major rivers, including the Chambal, Sind, Betwa, and Ken, flow through this region.
- Agriculture: The Central Highlands are known for agriculture and are a significant agricultural region in India.
(iii) The Island groups of India
Ans India has two main island groups:
- Lakshadweep Islands: Located close to the Malabar coast of Kerala, these islands are of coral origin. Kavaratti island serves as the administrative headquarters, and the region is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including bird sanctuaries on uninhabited islands like Pitti.
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Situated in the Bay of Bengal, these islands are larger and more numerous. They are believed to be an elevated portion of submarine mountains. They are of great strategic importance and boast rich biodiversity due to their equatorial climate and thick forest cover.