Santosh Yadav: Reaching for The Top | Class 9 English Glossary and Explanation

Class 9 English Lesson “Reaching for The Top ” Part 1 Santosh Yadav – In this educational post you would find para wise explanation and glossary of word meanings. Click here for other lessons of “Beehive”.

Para wise Explanation: Santosh Yadav


  1. Mt Everest: The highest peak in the world, located in the Himalayan range, bordering Nepal and China.
  2. Blessing: A prayer asking for divine favor, protection, or guidance.
  3. Holy Man: A religious or spiritual figure believed to possess special powers or insights.
  4. Destiny: The predetermined course of events considered as something beyond human power or control.
  5. Rewari District: A district in the Indian state of Haryana.
  6. Haryana: A state in northern India.
  7. Paras: Sections or paragraphs in a written text.


In a small village called Joniyawas in Rewari District, Haryana, a remarkable woman named Santosh Yadav was born. She achieved the extraordinary feat of scaling Mt Everest twice, a unique accomplishment that set her apart. However, her story begins in a society where the birth of a son was considered a blessing, while a daughter, though not seen as a curse, was not generally welcomed.

When Santosh’s mother was expecting her, a traveling ‘holy man’ visited and assumed that the family desired a son, providing his blessing accordingly. To everyone’s surprise, Santosh’s grandmother, standing nearby, corrected him, expressing that they did not want a son. This unexpected revelation left the holy man surprised, yet he still bestowed his blessing. As fate would have it, Santosh was born as the sixth child in a family of five sons, making her the only daughter among five brothers.

This opening paragraph sets the stage for Santosh Yadav’s unique background, born into a society with specific expectations based on gender, where she defied traditional norms from the very beginning. It foreshadows the challenges she may have faced in pursuing her dreams and introduces the concept of destiny playing a role in her extraordinary journey. The subsequent paragraphs of the lesson likely delve into Santosh’s upbringing, her early experiences, and the eventual path that led her to conquer Mt Everest twice.


  1. Contentment: A state of happiness and satisfaction with one’s circumstances.
  2. Prescribed Roles: Roles or expectations assigned by society based on traditional norms or customs.
  3. Propensity: An inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way.
  4. Defiance: Open resistance or bold disobedience to authority or societal norms.
  5. Resilience: The ability to recover quickly from difficulties or challenges.
  6. Stereotypes: Widely held but oversimplified and generalized beliefs about a particular group of people.
  7. Forge: To create or develop something with effort, skill, or persistence.
  8. Foreshadow: To give a warning or indication of a future event.
  9. Independence: The state of being free from control or influence of others; self-reliance.
  10. Perspective: A particular way of viewing or considering a situation.


Santosh Yadav, named after the concept of contentment, demonstrated a spirit that didn’t conform to traditional expectations. Despite the meaning of her name, Santosh was not always content with the prescribed roles for girls in her society. Early on, she showed a propensity for living life on her own terms. While other girls adhered to traditional Indian dresses, Santosh stood out by preferring shorts. Reflecting on her choices, she articulates her determination, stating, “From the very beginning, I was quite determined that if I chose a correct and rational path, the others around me had to change, not me.”

This paragraph highlights Santosh’s early defiance of societal norms, symbolized by her choice of clothing. Her conviction and determination to forge her own path foreshadow the resilience and independence that likely played a role in her later achievements. The narrative suggests that Santosh’s journey was not just about physical challenges but also about breaking stereotypes and paving the way for a different perspective on what women can achieve. The next sections of the lesson may delve deeper into Santosh’s formative years and the challenges she faced in pursuing a non-traditional path.


  1. Affluent: Having a plentiful supply of resources, often referring to wealth.
  2. Prevailing Custom: The traditional practice or behaviour that is widely accepted or followed in a particular society or community.
  3. Make Do: To manage or cope with a situation using whatever resources are available.
  4. Fight the System: To resist or challenge established rules, norms, or practices.
  5. Harboured: To secretly hold or keep a feeling, thought, or belief.
  6. Opportune Moment: A favourable or advantageous time or occasion.
  7. Conform: To comply with established customs, rules, or standards.
  8. Societal Norm: The shared expectations or rules that guide behaviour within a society.
  9. Defiance: Open resistance or bold disobedience to authority or established norms.
  10. Navigated: To find a way through or around a challenging situation.


Santosh Yadav’s family background is revealed in this segment. Her parents were affluent landowners, capable of providing their children with the best education, even sending them to prestigious schools in the country’s capital, New Delhi, which was in close proximity. However, Santosh’s educational journey took a different turn due to the prevailing custom in her family.

Contrary to the opportunities available to her siblings, Santosh attended the local village school. Undeterred by this limitation, she harboured a quiet determination to challenge the system when the opportune moment presented itself. This moment arrived when she turned sixteen, an age at which most girls in her village typically entered into marriage. Santosh found herself facing parental pressure to conform to this societal norm.

This paragraph introduces the theme of societal expectations and the challenges Santosh confronted within her own family. The contrast between the educational privileges of her siblings and her own restricted access sets the stage for her upcoming struggle against traditional gender roles and expectations. The narrative implies that Santosh’s decision to resist conformity was not just a personal choice but a significant defiance against established norms. The subsequent sections may explore how she navigated these challenges and made choices that paved the way for her future endeavours.


  1. Resolute: Admirably determined; unwavering in purpose or commitment.
  2. Ultimatum: A final demand or statement of terms, the rejection of which could lead to a breakdown in relations.
  3. Defiance: Open resistance or bold disobedience to authority or established norms.
  4. Reluctance: Unwillingness or hesitation to do something.
  5. Assertive: Confident and forceful in stating one’s opinions or desires.
  6. Enrolled: Officially registered or joined in a course of study or training.
  7. Part-time: Involving or requiring only a limited number of hours of work per week.
  8. Unwavering: Steadfast; not changing or becoming weaker.
  9. Prevailing Expectations: Widely accepted or anticipated norms or beliefs in a particular society.
  10. Consequences: The results or effects of a particular action or situation.


At the age of sixteen, facing societal pressure for early marriage, Santosh Yadav was resolute in her pursuit of education. Marriage, at that point, was the last thing on her mind. In an act of defiance against the prevailing expectations for girls in her village, she issued a firm ultimatum to her parents – she would not marry unless provided with a proper education.

Undeterred by the potential consequences, Santosh took matters into her own hands. She left her home and took the bold step of enrolling herself in a school in Delhi, the country’s capital. Despite her parents’ initial reluctance to fund her education, she remained determined. Santosh, in a polite yet assertive manner, informed her parents of her intention to earn money through part-time work to cover her school fees.

This paragraph highlights Santosh’s resilience and her commitment to breaking away from societal norms. Her insistence on education as a priority over early marriage showcases her unwavering determination. The narrative suggests that Santosh’s journey involved not only physical challenges but also a significant struggle against the expectations imposed on her as a young woman in her community. The subsequent parts of the lesson may elaborate on her experiences in Delhi, the challenges she faced, and how she managed to overcome them to pave the way for her future achievements.


  1. Urge: A strong desire or impulse.
  2. High School Examinations: Standardized tests typically taken at the completion of secondary education.
  3. Jaipur: A city in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
  4. Maharani College: A college in Jaipur, named after the title of the queen in India.
  5. Kasturba Hostel: A hostel named after Kasturba Gandhi, wife of Mahatma Gandhi, providing accommodation for students.
  6. Aravalli Hills: A range of mountains in western India, running across the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi.
  7. Mountaineers: Individuals who engage in the sport or activity of climbing mountains.
  8. Affirmative: Agreeing or consenting to a request or proposal.
  9. Motivated: Encouraged or inspired to take action.


In this part of the lesson, Santosh’s educational journey continues as she pursues higher studies. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

Santosh’s persistent “urge” for education led her to pass high school examinations. Subsequently, she moved to Jaipur, a city in Rajasthan, and enrolled in Maharani College. To accommodate her stay, she secured a room in Kasturba Hostel, named after Kasturba Gandhi.

As Santosh settled into her new surroundings, her room at Kasturba Hostel provided a vantage point overlooking the Aravalli Hills. The narrative hints at Santosh’s curiosity and adventurous spirit as she observed villagers and mountaineers navigating the hills. The term “mountaineers” refers to individuals engaged in the sport or activity of climbing mountains.

Santosh’s decision to explore mountain climbing reflects her open-mindedness and willingness to embrace new challenges. The mountaineers’ affirmative response and motivation marked a pivotal moment that likely played a significant role in shaping Santosh’s future endeavours. The lesson may delve further into her experiences in mountain climbing and how this passion evolved into her remarkable achievements.


  1. No Looking Back: A phrase indicating a commitment to moving forward without hesitation or regret.
  2. Determined: Having a firm purpose or showing strong resolve.
  3. Enrolled: Officially registered or joined in a course of study or training.
  4. Uttarkashi: A town in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
  5. Nehru Institute of Mountaineering: An institute focused on training individuals in mountaineering skills, located in Uttarkashi.
  6. Semester: A period of study, typically half of an academic year.
  7. Letter of Apology: A written expression of regret and remorse for a mistake or wrongdoing.


In this segment of the lesson, Santosh’s determination to pursue mountaineering takes a more structured form. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

The phrase “No Looking Back” emphasizes Santosh’s unwavering commitment to her chosen path. Undeterred by challenges, she saved money and took the crucial step of enrolling in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.

Santosh’s bold decision to prioritize her passion over returning home after the college semester reflects her resolute nature. The term “letter of apology” indicates that Santosh took responsibility for her independent decision to enroll in Uttarkashi without her father’s permission. This underlines the conflict between societal expectations and her pursuit of a non-traditional path.

The lesson unfolds as Santosh’s journey into mountaineering gains momentum. The next sections may delve into her experiences at the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, the challenges she faced, and how this phase shaped her into the accomplished mountaineer she became.


  1. Expedition: A journey or voyage undertaken for a specific purpose, often exploratory or scientific.
  2. Matured Rapidly: Developed and improved quickly.
  3. Resistance: The ability to withstand or oppose something, in this context, cold and altitude.
  4. Iron Will: A strong determination or willpower.
  5. Physical Endurance: The ability to sustain physical exertion over an extended period.
  6. Mental Toughness: Resilience and strength of character in the face of challenges.
  7. Culmination: The highest point or climax of an event or process.
  8. Hard Work: Diligent and focused effort over an extended period.
  9. Sincerity: The quality of being honest, genuine, and free from deceit.
  10. Shyly: In a manner indicating timidity or reluctance.


This segment of the lesson highlights the remarkable progress and achievements of Santosh Yadav in her mountaineering pursuits. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

Santosh’s dedication to mountaineering is evident as she embarks on an “expedition” every year, contributing to the rapid maturation of her climbing skills. The mention of her developing “resistance to cold and altitude” underscores the physical challenges she successfully overcame.

The description of Santosh as being “equipped with an iron will, physical endurance, and amazing mental toughness” speaks to the qualities that propelled her to success. Her repeated achievements culminated in 1992 when, at the age of barely twenty, she scaled Mt Everest, becoming the youngest woman in the world to achieve this feat. The terms “iron will,” “physical endurance,” and “mental toughness” emphasize the personal attributes that played a crucial role in her accomplishments.

The narrative suggests that Santosh’s achievements not only impressed her seniors but also endeared her to fellow climbers due to her “concern for others and desire to work together with them.” This portrayal hints at her collaborative spirit and compassion, setting her apart in the hearts of her peers.

The lesson unfolds Santosh Yadav’s inspiring journey from a determined young girl defying societal expectations to becoming a trailblazing mountaineer with a unique blend of skills and qualities. The subsequent sections may explore further details about her expeditions, challenges faced, and the impact of her achievements on the mountaineering community.


  1. South Col: A high-altitude pass on Mount Everest, often used as a camp during climbing expeditions.
  2. Fate: The development of events beyond a person’s control, seen as determined by a supernatural power.


In this segment, the lesson delves into a specific event during the 1992 Everest mission involving Santosh Yadav. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

During the mission, Santosh displayed exceptional compassion and bravery. The “South Col” refers to a challenging high-altitude pass on Mount Everest, often a perilous location during climbing expeditions.

Santosh’s attempt to provide “special care to a climber who lay dying” indicates her humanitarian efforts in a critical situation. Unfortunately, despite her efforts, she was “unsuccessful in saving him,” highlighting the harsh realities and dangers of mountaineering.

However, the narrative takes a positive turn as Santosh successfully intervened to save another climber, Mohan Singh. The mention of “sharing her oxygen with him” underscores the life-saving impact of her actions. This event showcases not only Santosh’s technical expertise but also her willingness to assist and support her fellow climbers in life-threatening situations.

This section of the lesson provides a glimpse into the challenges and complexities of high-altitude mountaineering, emphasizing Santosh Yadav’s courage and selflessness in the face of adversity. The subsequent sections may further explore the impact of such experiences on Santosh and her continued contributions to the world of mountaineering.


  1. Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition: An expedition involving women from both India and Nepal.
  2. Annals: Historical records or chronicles.
  3. Mountaineering: The sport or activity of climbing mountains.
  4. Recognition: Acknowledgment or appreciation of one’s achievements or contributions.
  5. Bestowed: Conferred or presented, often with a sense of honor.
  6. Padmashri: One of the highest civilian honors in India, awarded for distinguished service in various fields.


In this segment, the lesson continues to highlight Santosh Yadav’s remarkable achievements. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

Santosh’s inclusion in an “Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition” signifies her growing recognition and collaboration with climbers from both India and Nepal. The term “scaled” refers to the act of successfully reaching the summit of Mount Everest.

Santosh’s second ascent of Everest within twelve months sets a significant record, making her the “only woman to have scaled the Everest twice.” This accomplishment not only reflects her personal skill and determination but also secures a notable place for both herself and India in the “annals of mountaineering,” emphasizing the historical significance of her feat.

In recognition of her exceptional achievements, the Indian government honored Santosh Yadav with one of the nation’s top honors, the “Padmashri.” This award is a prestigious civilian honor in India, given for distinguished service in various fields.

This section underscores Santosh Yadav’s continued success and the recognition she received for her contributions to the field of mountaineering. The subsequent parts of the lesson may explore the impact of these achievements on her life, her role as a trailblazer for women in mountaineering, and her ongoing influence in the realm of adventure sports.


  1. Literally: In a literal or exact sense.
  2. On Top of the World: An expression conveying a sense of extreme happiness or success.
  3. Enormity: The great or extreme scale, seriousness, or extent of something.
  4. Unfurled: To unfold or open, often referring to a flag or banner.
  5. Tricolour: A flag with three different colors, often referring to the national flag of India.
  6. Aloft: Raised or lifted up.
  7. Spiritual Moment: A moment characterized by a profound sense of connection, meaning, or significance.
  8. Fervent: Having or displaying a passionate intensity.
  9. Environmentalism: Advocacy for the protection and preservation of the natural environment.
  10. Garbage: Waste material, often including items that are no longer useful.


In this section, Santosh Yadav’s personal experience and environmental commitment are highlighted. The glossary provides clarification for terms used in the text:

When Santosh reached the summit of Mount Everest, she described her emotions as being “literally ‘on top of the world’,” emphasizing the overwhelming sense of success and achievement. The term “enormity” underscores the magnitude of the moment.

Her act of “unfurling the Indian tricolour and holding it aloft on the roof of the world” symbolizes her national pride and achievement. The expression “spiritual moment” reflects the deep and meaningful connection she felt, especially as an Indian. This moment goes beyond the physical accomplishment and becomes a symbolic representation of national pride and achievement.

The text also mentions Santosh’s commitment to environmental conservation. As an “environmentalist,” she took action by collecting and bringing down 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas. This showcases her dedication to preserving the natural environment, especially in the context of the impact of mountaineering activities on the fragile ecosystems of high-altitude regions.

This section provides insight into Santosh Yadav’s personal reflections at the summit of Everest and her dual commitment to national pride and environmental responsibility. The following sections may further explore her post-Everest endeavors and her continued contributions to both mountaineering and environmental causes.

Leave a Reply