The Story of Village Palampur Question Answers Class 9 Economics Chap. 1

The Story of Village Palampur Question Answers:

Intext Question Answers

Page-3 (Let’s Discuss)

Q. The following Table1.1 shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares. Plot this on the graph provided. What does the graph show? Discuss in class.

The following graph shows that the land under cultivation in India was 120 million hectares in 1950 which rose to 140 million hectares in 1970 and remained constant at 140 million hectares till 2000.

Q. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

Ans. Yes, it is important to increase the land area under irrigation. Firstly, so that the farmers can do multiple cropping and grow more than one crops in a year and increase their production and earning. Secondly, use of HYV seeds need of plenty of water to give best results.

Q. You have read about the crops grown in Palampur. Fill the following table based on information on the crops grown in your region.


Name of cropMonth sownMonth harvestedSource of irrigation
WheatOctober, DecemberApril, JuneTubewells and canals
RiceJune, JulySeptember, OctoberRain, canals and Tubewells
Jowar and BajraJune, JulySeptember, OctoberRain, canals and Tubewells

Page-5 (Let’s Discuss)

Q. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method?


Multiple Cropping: To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land.

Modern Farming Method: The farmers of Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh use HYV seeds, tubewells for irrigation, chemical fertilisers and pesticides, as well as machinery like tractors and threshers to increase
production. All these measures comprise what are known as modern farming methods.

Q. The following table shows the production of wheat and pulses in India after the Green Revolution in units of million tonnes. Plot this on a graph. Was the Green Revolution equally successful for both the crops? Discuss.


The period spanning from 1965 to 2001 saw a substantial rise in wheat production, while the production of pulses experienced only a negligible increase. Moreover, the pulse production shows decrease trend after 2018 with stagnation through the years 2018-19 to 2019-20. This suggests that the Green Revolution was more effective in boosting wheat production than it was in increasing the production of pulses.

Q. What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods?

Ans. The working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods are raw material and money. Money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items.

Page-7 (Let’s Discuss)

Q. In the Picture 1.5, can you shade the land cultivated by the small farmers?

Ans. The shaded rectangles with boundaries show the small plots of land cultivated by small farmers.

Q. Why do so many families of farmers cultivate such small plots of land?

Ans. The land in Palampur is limited by constraint, and farming is the main source of livelihood for 75% of the population. Due to the fixed amount of land available and the high dependence on it, people are compelled to cultivate small plots of land.

Q. The distribution of farmers in India and the amount of land they cultivate is given
in the following Graph 1.1. Discuss in the classroom.

Would you agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in Palampur? Do you find a similar situation for India? Explain.


I agree that the distribution of cultivated land in Palampur is unequal. Out of the 450 families, 150 are landless, 240 cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares, and only 60 medium and large farmers cultivate more than 2 hectares of land, with some having land extending over 10 hectares or more. This indicates that even though medium and large farmers are numerically smaller, they have more land than the smaller farmers, which highlights the inequality in the distribution of cultivated land.

The graph also reveals a similar situation in India where 85% of small farmers cultivate only 55.4% of the cultivated area while 15% of big farmers cultivate 44.6% of the cultivated area, further indicating the unequal distribution of cultivated land in India as well, similar to Palampur.

Q. Identify the work being done on the field in the Pictures 1.6 and arrange them in a proper sequence.

Ans. The proper sequence of the activities is given below.

  1. Ploughing by bullocks
  2. Sowing
  3. Spraying of insecticides
  4. Cultivation by traditional methods
  5. Cultivation by modern methods
  6. Cutting of crops

Page-9 (Let’s Discuss)

Q. Why are farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali poor?


(a) Palampur has landless farm labourers named Dala and Ramkali, who rely on daily wages for their livelihood.

(b) Despite the government’s minimum wage requirement of 60 per day for farm labourers, Dala and Ramkali only receive 35-40.

(c) There is intense competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur, resulting in people agreeing to work for meagre wages.

(d) Since Dala and Ramkali are unable to secure work for most of the year due to seasonal unemployment, they have to borrow money from moneylenders to meet their needs. However, this puts them in a debt trap as they are unable to repay the loan and remain poor.

Q. Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in North Bihar. Out of a total of 850 households in the two villages, there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common in most villages across India. Why do people migrate? Can you describe (based on your imagination) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place of destination?

Ans. There are many reasons why people migrate, including economic opportunities, better living conditions, education, family reunification, and political instability. In the case of Gosaipur and Majauli, it is likely that many of the men migrated to other parts of India in search of better job opportunities.

Based on my imagination, the migrants from Gosaipur and Majauli may be working in a variety of sectors in their destination cities. Those employed in rural Punjab and Haryana may be working in agriculture, perhaps as laborers on farms or as drivers for agricultural machinery. Those working in cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, or Nagpur may be employed in a range of industries, such as construction, manufacturing, or service sectors like hospitality or retail.

Some of the men may have found work in the informal sector, doing odd jobs or working in small businesses. Others may have found jobs in the formal sector, working for larger corporations or in government jobs.

Let’s Discuss The Story So far

Q. We have read about the three factors of production—land, labour and capital— and how they are used in farming. Let us fill in the blanks given below.


Among the three factors of production, we found that labour is the most abundant factor of production. There are many people who are willing to work as farm labourers in the villages, whereas the Opportunities of work are limited. They belong to either landless families or small farmers. They are paid low wages, and lead a difficult life.

In contrast to labour, land is a scarce factor of production. Cultivated land area is fixed. Moreover, even the existing land is distributed unequally (equally/unequally) among the people engaged in farming. There are a large number of small farmers who cultivate small plots of land and live in conditions not much better than the landless farm labourer. To make the maximum use of the existing land, farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Both these have led to increase in production of crops.

Modern farming methods require a great deal of multiple cropping technique. Small farmers usually need to borrow money to arrange for the capital, and are put to great distress to repay the loan. Therefore, capital too is a scarce factor of production, particularly for the small farmers.

Though both land and capital are scarce, there is a basic difference between the two factors of production. Land is a natural resource, whereas capital is man-made. It is possible to increase capital, whereas land is fixed. Therefore, it is very important that we take good care of land and other natural resources used in farming.

Page-11 (Let’s Discuss)

Q. Let us take three farmers. Each has grown wheat on his field though the production is different (see Column 2). The consumption of wheat by each farmer family is the same (Column 3). The whole of surplus wheat this year is used as capital for next year’s production. Also suppose, production is twice the capital used in production. Complete the tables.


Farmer 1

YearProductionConsumptionSurplus =
Production – Consumption
Capital for next year

Farmer 2

YearProductionConsumptionSurplusCapital for next year

Farmer 3

YearProductionConsumptionSurplusCapital for next year

Q. Compare the production of wheat by the three farmers over the years.

Ans. Comparison is given below.

YearsFarmer 1Farmer 2Farmer 3
Year 11008060
Year 21208040
Year 3160800

Farmer 1 is the most successful farmer, as they are able to produce a surplus of wheat each year. This surplus can be used to invest in their farm, which will help them to grow their business and improve their livelihood.

Farmer 2 is also a successful farmer, as they are able to produce enough wheat to meet their own consumption needs. However, they do not have a surplus, which means that they cannot invest in their farm.

Farmer 3 is the least successful farmer, as they are not able to produce enough wheat to meet their own consumption needs. In Year 2, they were forced to purchase wheat from the market. In Year 3, they were not able to produce any wheat and had to purchase all of their wheat from the market. This means that Farmer 3 is not able to invest in their farm and is at risk of losing their land and their livelihood.

Q. What happens to Farmer 3 in Year 3? Can he continue production? What will he have to do to continue production?

Ans. In the third year, the third farmer did not produce any wheat and had to buy it from the market. He cannot continue production any longer unless he arranges capital, as he has no surplus to invest as capital

Page-12 (Let’s Discuss)

(i) What capital did Mishrilal need to set up his jaggery manufacturing unit?

Ans. To set up his manufacturing unit Mishrilal needed the following capital

(a) Fixed Capital in the form of the sugarcane crushing machine.

(b) Working Capital in the form of money for buying sugarcane from other farmers for crushing and for paying the electricity bill of running the crushing machine.

(ii) Who provides the labour in this case?

Ans. The labour is provided by him and his family. Otherwise, he will employ landless labourers.

(iii) Can you guess why Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit?


(a) Mishrilal has set up a small scale unit.

(b) The farm holdings in the village are very small of about 2 hectares in size and production of sugarcane is low as more area is under wheat, so raw material is also less.

(c) He has to pay for the electricity to run the machine.

(d) Since the industry is small scale, production is less and therefore, he is unable to increase his profit.

(iv) Could you think of any reasons when he might face a loss?

Ans. Conditions under which he may face a loss can be any of the following

(a) If his crushing machine becomes defective, his production will reduce or totally stop.

(b) If due to drought or other calamity, the production of sugarcane in nearby areas reduces, his jaggery production will come down leading to a loss for him.

(c) If the demand for jaggery decreases, he will not be able to sell enough to break even.

(d) If any other costs like electricity, labour or transportation costs increase, he may face a loss.

(v) Why does Mishrilal sells his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village?


(a) Palampur is a small village with 450 families and there is not a big demand for jaggery there.

(b) Shahpur is a town where people come from different surrounding villages to buy things and there is more demand of jaggery there, so Mishrilal sells his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village.

Let’s Discuss

Q. In what ways is Kareem’s capital and labour different from Mishrilal’s?

Ans. Both have fixed capital in the form of machines, but Kareem has a larger fixed capital because he has assets in the form of computers which are more expensive then the sugarcane crushing machine. Kareem has also employed educated and qualified computer teachers, whereas Mishrilal’s labour is mainly unskilled labour.

Q. Why didn’t someone start a computer centre earlier? Discuss the possible reasons.

Ans. Reasons why someone didn’t start a computer centre may be any of the following
(a) As very few educated people were there in the village, there was not any demand for computer courses.
(b) The villagers were not aware of the employment potential of computer courses and so nobody thought that such a business could be successful.
(c) Teaching faculty for computer courses was not available in the village earlier.

Let’s Discuss

Q. What is Kishora’s fixed capital?

Ans. Kishora’s fixed capital is the buffalo and wooden-cart which he has purchased with the bank loan.

Q. What do you think would be his working capital?

Ans. The money that he earns from selling the milk and transporting goods on his bullock-cart minus his own living expenses are his working capital.

Q. In how many production activities is Kishora involved?

Ans. Kishora is involved in the following production activities.
(a) Selling of buffalo’s milk.
(b) Transporting of various items.
(c) Bringing clay from the river Ganga for the potter.
(d) Transporting jaggery etc to Shahpur.

Q. Would you say that Kishora has benefitted from better roads in Palampur?

Ans. Kishora has certainly benefited from better roads in Palampur because he is involved in the transport business; better roads enable him to easily transport goods from one place to another, run his business successfully and earn profits, which would have been very difficult in the absence of proper roads.

Textbook Exercise Question Answers

1. Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur.
c. LAND USE (in hectares):

d. Facilities


(a) Location: Palampur is located 3 km from Raiganj which is a big village. The nearest town is Shahpur.

  • It is well connected with neighbouring villages and towns.
  • An all weather road connects the village to Raiganj and further to the nearest small town of Shahpur.

(b) Total Area of the Village is 246 hectares.

(c) LAND USE (in hectares):

Type of LandCultivatedLand not available for cultivationIrrigatedUnirrigated
Area (in hectares)20026

(d) Facilities

EducationalTwo primary school and one high school
MedicalOne primary health centre and one private dispensary
MarketRaiganj and Shahpur
Electricity SupplyMost of the houses have electricity supply
CommunicationWell connected with Raiganj and Shahpur
Nearest TownShahpur

2. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?

Ans. Yes, it is true that modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. For example
(i) HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides and chemical fertilisers needed for increasing the yield per hectare are all manufactured in industries.

(ii) Farmers use farm machinery like tractors, threshers and also combined harvestors which are also manufactured in industries.

(iii) Tubewell equipment and water pumps used for irrigation are also manufactured in industries.

3. How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?

Ans. Spread of electricity has helped in many ways:

(i) Most of the houses in Palampur have electric connections.

(ii) Electricity powers all the tubewells in the fields that help to irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively as compared to the traditional Persian wheel drawn by bullocks. Since the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares had come under irrigation farmers did not have to depend on rainfall and could grow multiple crops.

(iii) It helps small businesses run their machinery like Mishrilal’s sugarcane crushing machine.

4. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

Ans. Yes, it is important to increase the area under irrigation. By having a supply of continuous water, farmers can grow multiple crops in a year. By growing multiple crops, farmers earn greater profits thereby improving economic conditions of the village and area. Irrigation facilities would also lessen the reliance on rains as means of irrigation and avoid droughts and loss of crops.

5. Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.


Land OwnershipNumber of Families
No land (mainly dalits)150
Less than 2 hectares240
More than 2 hectares60

6. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?

Ans. Palampur less than minimum wages? Ans. There are many landless farm labourers who are paid less than the minimum wages in Palampur. The Government declared wage for a farm labourer is Rs.300 per day but the competition for work among the farm labourers is very high, which is why people agree to work for lower wages.

7. In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?

Ans. Students should this by themselves. However, a sample answer is given below:

In our region, there are two laborers named Rajesh and Priya, who are husband and wife working as casual construction laborers. Due to a drought, they had to leave their village in search of employment. They are paid around 50 to 60 rupees per day, which is given to them in cash.

However, they struggle to find work on a regular basis due to the high number of workers seeking employment. As a result, they accept low wages, which prevents them from fulfilling their basic needs and has led them to accumulate debt.

8. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.

Ans. Multiple cropping and use of modern farming methods are two different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land.

(i) Multiple Cropping: When more than one crop is grown on a piece of land during the year it is known as multiple cropping.

(a) It is the most common way to increase production on a given piece of land.

(b) All farmers in Palampur grow at least two main crops, many are growing potato as the third crop in the past fifteen to twenty years.

(ii) Use of Modern Farming Methods: Modern farming methods also help to increase the yield per hectare.

(a) Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try modern farming methods in India.

(b) The farmers in these regions set up tubewells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming.

(c) Some also used farm machinery like tractors and threshers, which made ploughing and harvesting faster. They were rewarded with high yields of wheat, increasing from 1300 kg per hectare to 3200 kg per hectare with HYV seeds.

9. Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.


(i) A farmer having 1 hectare of land for farming is called a subsistence farmer because 1 hectare of land is too less for even the sustenance of a small family.

(ii) Production is very low and it is very difficult for the farmer to provide for his family.

(iii) Apart from working on his own field he has to work on the field of the rich farmers or work as a casual labourer to survive.

(iv) The small farmer has no irrigation facilities.

(v) He has no working capital so he is also not able to buy modern machinery, HYV seeds or insecticides and pesticides.

(vi) In the absence of capital, he has to take loan from moneylender who charges a high interest rate. He is rarely able to repay the loan and eventually falls into a debt trap.

10. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?

Ans. Modern farming methods such as use of HYV insecticides pesticides etc require a great deal of capital so the farmer needs more money than before.

(i) The medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They are thus able to arrange for the capital needed.

(ii) In contrast, the small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation.

(iii) The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan, which is not so in the case of medium and large farmers.

11. On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tajpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?

Ans. Savita got a loan from Tejpal Singh at the rate of interest of 24 per cent for four months and also had to work for Tejpal Singh as a farm labourer at the wage of Rs.100 per day during the harvest season.

The case would have been different if Savita would have taken the loan from a bank. It is because the rate of interest would have been lesser than what was asked by Tejpal Singh and also she would have been able to pay complete attention to our own field during the time of harvest

12. Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years. (Optional)

Ans. Students should this by themselves. However, a sample answer is given below:

(i) After conversing with Kanahiya Babu and Betu Lal, two long-time inhabitants of our area, I gained knowledge of the traditional irrigation methods that were employed in our region. They informed me that in the past, the locals relied solely on rainfall for their agricultural needs, but later, they began to use the Persian wheel to extract water from the wells. As technology advanced, tubewells were introduced for more efficient and effective irrigation.

(ii) The traditional farming methods involved tilling the fields with ploughs that were pulled by bullocks, a strenuous and time-consuming process. The farmers used conventional seeds and cow dung as manure for fertilization.

(iii) With the advancement of technology, farmers have now adopted modern techniques such as high-yield variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, as well as machinery like tractors and threshers. These changes have resulted in increased yield per hectare, enhancing the lives of farmers.

13. What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a short list.

Ans. The non-farm production activities taking place in our region are:

(i) Dairy

(ii) Transportation

(iii) General Stores

(iv) Training/coaching centres

14. What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?

Ans. There are several steps that can be taken to promote non-farm production activities in villages in India:

  1. Infrastructure Development: The government can invest in the development of basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water supply, and communication facilities. This will make it easier for entrepreneurs to set up non-farm activities in villages.
  2. Skill Development: Skill development programs can be conducted to provide training to the rural population in various non-farm activities. This will enable them to acquire the skills necessary for starting and running non-farm production activities.
  3. Access to Finance: Financial institutions can be encouraged to provide loans to rural entrepreneurs for setting up non-farm activities. The government can also provide subsidies and incentives to promote non-farm production activities in villages.
  4. Market Linkages: The government can facilitate linkages between rural producers and urban markets. This will enable rural producers to access a wider market for their products, thereby increasing their income.
  5. Promotion of Clusters: Clustering of non-farm activities can be promoted to enable producers to benefit from economies of scale, reduce transaction costs and enhance competitiveness.
  6. Research and Development: Research and development activities can be encouraged to develop new technologies and innovative business models for non-farm activities in rural areas.
  7. Government Support: The government can provide support to non-farm production activities through various schemes such as the National Rural Livelihood Mission, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, and the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana.

Overall, a comprehensive approach that addresses issues related to infrastructure, skills, finance, market linkages, clustering, research and development, and government support can promote non-farm production activities in villages in India.

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