Get here CBSE Class 9 Pol. Sc. Chapter 2 ‘Constitutional Design’ Question & Answers to Intext-questions and Textbook Chapter exercise Solutions. All answers and solutions are as per CBSE standards. Click here for more study materials on class 9 social science.
Intext Questions & Answers
In-text questions are questions found within a text or passage that prompt readers to think critically about the content. They help deepen understanding and engagement with the material. In this chapter In-text questions are given in the form of ‘Activity’ or ‘Check Your Progress’. Solutions to all are given here page wise.
Activity (Page 20)
Make a poster on the life and struggle of Nelson Mandela.
If available, read some portions of his autobiography, The Long Walk to Freedom, in the classroom.
Answer: (i) Make poster yourself. Create a poster showcasing Nelson Mandela’s remarkable life and his tireless struggle against apartheid. Include key milestones, quotes, and images to capture his journey towards freedom and equality.
Here are some facts & info about Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and political leader. Here are some key facts and information about him:
- Early Life: Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in the village of Mvezo in South Africa. He belonged to the Thembu royal family.
- Anti-Apartheid Activism: He became involved in the struggle against racial segregation and discrimination, known as apartheid, in his early adulthood. He joined the African National Congress (ANC) and advocated for nonviolent resistance.
- Imprisonment: In 1962, Mandela was arrested and subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in anti-apartheid activities. He spent 27 years in prison, most of them on Robben Island.
- Global Symbol: Mandela’s imprisonment garnered international attention, turning him into a symbol of resistance against apartheid and racial injustice.
- Release and Negotiations: In 1990, after years of pressure and protests, Mandela was released from prison. He played a pivotal role in negotiations that led to the end of apartheid and the first multiracial elections in South Africa.
- First Black President: In 1994, Mandela became the first black president of South Africa after the ANC won the elections. His presidency focused on reconciliation, social justice, and dismantling the legacy of apartheid.
- Reconciliation: Mandela championed reconciliation efforts, seeking to heal the wounds of the past and build a united, non-racial South Africa. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to address human rights violations during apartheid.
- Global Advocate: Mandela was a global advocate for human rights, peace, and justice. He received numerous awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
- Legacy: Mandela’s leadership and commitment to justice left an indelible mark on South Africa and the world. His life’s work inspired people globally to stand against oppression and inequality.
- Long Walk to Freedom: His autobiography, “Long Walk to Freedom,” chronicles his life, struggles, and journey to becoming South Africa’s first black president.
Nelson Mandela’s legacy continues to inspire individuals and movements dedicated to equality, justice, and human rights worldwide.
(ii) Long Walk to freedom: Read excerpts from Nelson Mandela’s autobiography, “The Long Walk to Freedom,” in class. Explore his firsthand account of his experiences, challenges, and aspirations, providing insights into his remarkable journey.
Here are some excerpts from the book ‘Long Walk to Freedom’ by Nelson Mandela:
- “Long Walk to Freedom is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, a book destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history’s greatest figures.”
- “It was during those long and lonely years that my hunger for the freedom of my own people became a hunger for the freedom of all people, white and black.”
- “The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.”
- “I was not born with a hunger to be free. I was born free — free in every way that I could know. Free to run in the fields near my mother’s hut…”
These excerpts provide a glimpse into Nelson Mandela’s inspiring journey and his fight for freedom.
Check Your Progress (Page 21)
Does the story of South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make
- a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:
- Nature of colonialism
- Relationship between different communities
- Leadership: Gandhi/ Mandela
- Party that led the struggle: African National Congress/ Indian National Congress
- Method of struggle
Answer: While there are several similarities between the South African and Indian freedom struggles, the specific historical, social, and political contexts led to significant differences in their approaches and outcomes.
Similarities between the South African and Indian Freedom Struggles:
- Nature of Colonialism: Both countries were under oppressive colonial rule. South Africa was ruled by the British, and India was a colony of the British Empire.
- Relationship between Different Communities: Both countries had diverse populations with multiple communities, languages, and cultures. The struggles in both countries aimed to unite these diverse groups against a common oppressor.
- Leadership: Both struggles had iconic leaders advocating nonviolent resistance. Gandhi led India’s movement, promoting nonviolence and civil disobedience. Mandela led South Africa’s anti-apartheid movement, promoting peaceful resistance.
- Party that Led the Struggle: The African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against apartheid in South Africa, while the Indian National Congress played a significant role in India’s fight for independence.
Dissimilarities between the South African and Indian Freedom Struggles:
- Apartheid vs. British Rule: South Africa’s struggle was against apartheid policies, which enforced racial segregation and discrimination. India’s struggle was against direct British colonial rule.
- Extent of Repression: Apartheid policies in South Africa were characterized by extreme racial segregation and brutal oppression. While British rule in India was repressive, it did not involve the same level of racial segregation.
- Leadership Style: While both Gandhi and Mandela promoted nonviolence, Gandhi’s approach was more passive resistance and civil disobedience, while Mandela’s struggle included both peaceful and armed resistance.
- International Support: The anti-apartheid struggle gained significant international attention and support, leading to global efforts to isolate South Africa economically and diplomatically. India’s struggle also received international support but did not result in a similar level of global isolation for Britain.
- Duration and Path: The Indian freedom struggle had a longer history, spanning several decades, while the South African anti-apartheid movement gained more momentum in the mid-20th century.
- Method of Struggle: While both movements included nonviolent resistance, the methods employed were different. For instance, Gandhi’s Salt March and fasting campaigns were unique to India, while South Africa saw events like the Sharpeville massacre.
- National Movements: India’s struggle was primarily a national movement seeking complete independence, while South Africa’s movement was both a struggle against apartheid policies and for racial equality.
|Points of Comparison
|South African Freedom Struggle
|Indian National Movement
|Nature of Colonialism
|Against apartheid policies under British rule
|Against direct British colonial rule
|Relationship between Different Communities
|Diverse population with racial segregation
|Diverse population with unity against British rule
|Nelson Mandela advocated peaceful resistance
|Gandhi promoted nonviolent civil disobedience
|Party that Led the Struggle
|African National Congress (ANC)
|Indian National Congress (INC)
|Apartheid vs. British Rule
|Opposed apartheid policies and racial segregation
|Opposed direct British colonial rule
|Extent of Repression
|Severe racial segregation and discrimination
|Repression without racial segregation
|Combination of peaceful and armed resistance
|Emphasis on nonviolence and civil disobedience
|Gained significant global attention and support
|Received international support, but not to the same extent
|Duration and Path
|Gained momentum in mid-20th century
|Spanned several decades
|Method of Struggle
|Unique events like Sharpeville massacre
|Events like Salt March and fasting campaigns
|Struggle against apartheid and for racial equality
|Primarily a national movement for complete independence
Activity (Page 22)
Approach a club or cooperative society or union or political party in your locality. Get a copy of their rule book (it is often called Rules of Association) and read it. Are these rules in accordance with principles of democracy? Do they give membership to any person without discrimination?
Answer: Do it yourself. Below is given a Sample Answer Only to guide how to approach a Political Party to analyse it in the context of the question asked.
In the context of a political party like the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) or Congress (I) or Communist Party or BJP etc. in India, it is important to approach a local club, cooperative society, union, or another political party to assess whether their rule book aligns with democratic principles. Specifically, you should analyse whether their rules of association are inclusive and non-discriminatory, reflecting the core values of democracy.
Here’s how you can evaluate the rules of such an organization:
- Membership Criteria: Check if the membership criteria are open and accessible to all individuals without discrimination based on factors like caste, religion, gender, or socio-economic background. A democratic organization should provide equal membership opportunities.
- Decision-Making Processes: Examine how decisions are made within the organization. Democratic principles suggest that decisions should be made collectively, possibly through regular elections and open discussions, allowing members to have a say in important matters.
- Transparency: Look for provisions that ensure transparency in the organization’s operations. Democratic organizations usually provide access to information, financial records, and decision-making processes for all members.
- Inclusivity: Check if the organization promotes inclusivity by giving representation to different sections of society. Inclusivity ensures that diverse perspectives are considered in decision-making.
- Protection of Individual Rights: Evaluate whether the organization respects the individual rights and freedoms of its members. A democratic organization should uphold the rights of expression, association, and participation for all members.
- Non-Discrimination: Ensure that the organization does not discriminate against any member based on their background or beliefs. Democratic principles emphasize equal treatment and protection from discrimination.
By analysing the rule book of such an organization, you can determine whether it adheres to democratic values and principles. If the rules align with these principles and ensure inclusivity, equal participation, and non-discrimination, then the organization is likely following democratic norms. If not, there might be room for improvement to ensure that the organization operates in a more democratic and equitable manner.
Activity (Page 23)
Speak to your grandparents or some other elders in your locality. Ask them if they have any memory of partition or independence or the making of the constitution. What were their fears and hopes
about the country at that time? Discuss these in the classroom.
Answer: Do it yourself. Here is a sample answer:
“I spoke to my grandparents about their memories of partition, independence, and the making of the constitution. They vividly recalled the sense of excitement and hope that surrounded the freedom struggle. However, they also mentioned the atmosphere of uncertainty and fear during the partition, as they witnessed communal tensions and violence.
They hoped for a united and prosperous India where people of all communities could live harmoniously. They were especially optimistic about the idea of democracy and the constitution, which they believed would pave the way for a just and inclusive society.
In the classroom discussion, my peers shared similar stories from their grandparents. It was interesting to note the common themes of hope, fear, and a desire for a better future. We realized how important it is to learn from their experiences to cherish and uphold the values of unity, diversity, and democracy that our country stands for.”
Activity (Page 24)
Find out more about any member of the Constituent Assembly from your state or region who is not mentioned here. Collect a photograph or make a sketch of that leader. Write a short note on him or her, following the same style as used here: Name (year of birth-year of death), place of birth (by current political boundaries), brief description of political activities; role played after the Constituent Assembly.
Answer: Here is a sample answer based on the Constituent Assembly Member J B Kriplani
JB Kripalani (1888-1982)
Place of Birth: Hyderabad, Sindh (now in Pakistan)
Brief Description of Political Activities: JB Kripalani, full name Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani, was a prominent leader in the Indian freedom struggle and an important member of the Indian National Congress. He was known for his strong commitment to nonviolence and social justice. Kripalani actively participated in various movements against British colonial rule, including the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement. He was deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s principles of nonviolence and satyagraha.
Kripalani’s political ideology was rooted in democratic socialism and he advocated for economic equality and social welfare policies. He played a significant role in shaping the socio-political landscape of post-independence India. He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1947. Kripalani was a firm believer in democratic values and worked towards ensuring the rights and welfare of marginalized sections of society.
Role Played After the Constituent Assembly: After the Constituent Assembly, Kripalani continued to be an influential figure in Indian politics. He was elected to the Lok Sabha (Indian Parliament) and also served as the President of the All-India Trade Union Congress. He was a staunch advocate for the rights of workers and laborers, and his efforts contributed to the shaping of labor policies in India.
Throughout his life, JB Kripalani remained committed to democratic principles, social justice, and the upliftment of the underprivileged. His legacy as a freedom fighter, social reformer, and champion of democratic values continues to inspire generations.
Check Your Progress (Page 25)
Read the information about all the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here. You don’t need to memorise this information. Just give examples from these to support the following
- The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress
- The Assembly represented members from different social groups
- Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies
Answer: The Constituent Assembly included 299 members who represented a wide range of ideologies, parties, and backgrounds, contributing to the creation of a balanced and comprehensive Constitution.
1. The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress:
- Sardar Patel, a prominent leader and a member of the Indian National Congress, was a key figure in the assembly. However, he was not always aligned with the Congress leadership and had his own distinct political identity.
- Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, a socialist and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi, was not a Congress member but made significant contributions to social welfare and healthcare provisions in the Constitution.
- Some other names:
- Jaipal Singh (1903-70)
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956)
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (1901-53)
2. The Assembly represented members from different social groups:
- Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, a legal expert and a member of the assembly, represented the Brahmin community and contributed to legal and constitutional discussions.
- Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a jurist and educationist, represented the Anglo-Indian community and provided insights into their concerns.
- Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel: Leader of Peasants Satyagraha.
- Jaipal Singh: President of Adivasi Mahasabha.
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar: Social revolutionary thinker and agitator against caste divisions and caste-based inequalities.
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee: Active in the Hindu Mahasabha.
3. Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies:
- K.M. Munshi, a member of the assembly, was associated with the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Hindu Mahasabha. He played a role in shaping cultural and educational aspects of the Constitution.
- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, an influential freedom fighter and scholar, was associated with the Indian National Congress and held a distinct perspective, rooted in his Islamic ideology.
Check Your Progress (Page 27)
Read the three quotations above carefully. (for quotations, see pages of the chapter at 26 & 27)
- Can you identify one idea that is common to all these three?
- What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea?
(i) The common thread uniting these three quotations is the aspiration to eradicate inequality within Indian society.
(ii) In the first quote, Mahatma Gandhi envisioned an India where distinctions of higher or lower classes would cease to exist, and various communities would coexist harmoniously.
In the second quotation, BR Ambedkar said, “We are going to enter a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality but in social and economic life, we will have inequality.” In the third quotation, Jawaharlal Nehru said about the ending of inequality, “the service of India means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.”
Check Your Progress (Page 30)
Compare the Preambles to the constitutions of the United States of America, India and South Africa.
- Make a list of ideas that are common to all these three.
- Note down at least one of the major differences among these.
- Which of the three makes a reference to the past?
- Which of these does not invoke God?
Common Ideas in the Preambles:
- Justice: All three preambles express the aim of establishing justice within their respective countries.
- Liberty: The preambles emphasize the importance of ensuring liberty or freedom to their citizens.
- Equality: They all highlight the value of promoting equality among their citizens.
- Dignity: Each preamble acknowledges the significance of upholding human dignity.
- Fraternity/Unity: The preambles stress the importance of fostering unity and fraternity among the people.
- Popular Participation: They recognize the role of the people in the formation and functioning of their respective governments.
One major difference is the explicit inclusion of references to specific historical injustices:
- In the South African Constitution, there is a distinct focus on addressing historical injustices and overcoming the legacy of apartheid and colonialism, whereas the preambles of the United States and India do not explicitly mention their historical context in the same way.
Reference to the Past:
The South African Constitution makes a reference to the past by acknowledging the injustices of apartheid and expressing the commitment to healing and addressing historical wrongs. It acknowledges “the injustices of our past.”
No Invocation of God:
The Constitution of South Africa is the one that does not invoke God in its preamble. Both the United States and Indian Constitutions make references to the divine. In the United States, the preamble refers to “the blessings of liberty,” and in India, it starts with “We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic.”
Textbook Exercise Solutions
Pages 31 and 32
Question 1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
(c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
(d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
(a) False: Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
Corrected: Leaders of the freedom movement were clear in their mind that the country should be democratic after independence.
(b) False: Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
Corrected: Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held different views on various provisions of the Constitution.
(c) False: A country that has a Constitution must be a democracy.
Corrected: A country that is a democracy must have a Constitution.
(d) False: Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
Corrected: The Constitution needs to be amended because it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.
Question 2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic Constitution in South Africa?
(a) Between South Africa and its neighbours
(b) Between men and women
(c) Between the white majority and the black minority
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
Answer: (d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
Question 3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic Constitution does not have?
(a) Powers of the head of the state
(b) Name of the head of the state
(c) Powers of the legislature
(d) Name of the country
Answer: (b) Name of the head of the state
Question 4. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution
(a) Motilal Nehru (i) President of the Constituent Assembly
(b) BR Ambedkar (ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly
(c) Rajendra Prasad (iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(d) Sarojini Naidu (iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
Answer: (a) iv (b) iii (c) i (d) ii
|Role in Making of the Constitution
|Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928 (iv)
|Chairman of the Drafting Committee (iii)
|President of the Constituent Assembly (i)
|Member of the Constituent Assembly (ii)
Question 5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following
(a) Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?
(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?
(c) “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”. Who was he referring to?
(a) Pt. Nehru used the expression ‘not wholly or in full measure’ because the pledge that they had taken was yet to be fulfilled, it was yet to be completed but not all at once but substantially and gradually.
(b) Pt. Nehru wanted the makers of the Constitution to take the pledge of dedication to the service of the nation and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
(c) Pt. Nehru was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
Question 6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
(a) Sovereign (i) Government will not favour any religion.
(b) Republic (ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(c) Fraternity (iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(d) Secular (iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.
Answer: (a) ii (b) iii (c) iv (d) i
|People have the supreme right to make decisions. (ii)
|Head of the state is an elected person. (iii)
|People should live like brothers and sisters. (iv)
|Government will not favour any religion. (i)
Question 7. How did your school celebrate the Constitution Day on November exercises 26th? Prepare a brief report.
Report on Constitution Day Celebration at My Einstein Public School
On November 26th, the students and faculty of Einstein Public School came together to celebrate Constitution Day with enthusiasm and patriotic spirit. The purpose of the celebration was to honor the adoption of the Indian Constitution and to raise awareness about the significance of this historic document in shaping the nation’s values and governance.
The celebration began with a special morning assembly. The school’s principal addressed the students, emphasizing the importance of the Constitution in upholding democratic principles, protecting citizens’ rights, and promoting unity among diversity. The students were reminded of the core values enshrined in the Constitution, such as justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.
The highlight of the event was a cultural program organized by the students. Various performances, including speeches, skits, and songs, were presented, all of which revolved around themes related to the Constitution, democracy, and the role of citizens in shaping the nation’s future. The performances not only showcased the talents of the students but also conveyed powerful messages about the strength of unity and the responsibilities of being informed citizens.
To enhance the educational aspect of the celebration, interactive sessions were conducted in classrooms. Teachers engaged students in discussions about the history of the Indian Constitution, its key features, and its impact on society. The students actively participated, asking questions and sharing their insights.
As a part of the celebration, a mock parliament session was also organized, where students got to experience the process of democratic decision-making. They debated on various topics, reflecting the diversity of opinions and practicing respectful communication.
Furthermore, the school decorated its premises with tricolour flags, quotes from the Constitution, and other patriotic symbols to create a festive atmosphere. Students and teachers wore traditional Indian attire or attire in the colours of the national flag as a mark of respect for the occasion.
The celebration concluded with a pledge-taking ceremony, where all the students and teachers collectively took an oath to uphold the values and principles of the Constitution in their daily lives. The principal encouraged everyone to take the lessons learned from the celebration to heart and become responsible and informed citizens.
Overall, the Constitution Day celebration at Einstein Public School was a meaningful and enlightening event that successfully conveyed the significance of the Indian Constitution to the students and encouraged them to actively participate in building a better nation.
Question 8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
(a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.
(b) Freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
Answer: The importance of each factor varies:
(a) The British rulers did introduce certain institutions, but the real importance lies in the struggle of the people. Importance: Low
(b) The freedom struggle was pivotal in shaping India’s democracy by challenging exploitation and demanding freedoms. Importance: High
(c) The presence of leaders with democratic convictions was crucial in steering the nation towards democracy. Importance: Moderate
Question 9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’. Do you think the values expressed in this paragraph reflected the values underlying our Constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
Answer: The values expressed in this paragraph go against the constitutional values. The paragraph reflects traditional and patriarchal views that consider women as inferior and in need of male protection. It goes against the principles of equality, freedom, and women’s rights that are enshrined in the Indian Constitution. The Constitution recognizes women as equal citizens with the same rights and opportunities as men, and it promotes gender justice and empowerment. Therefore, the values expressed in the paragraph contradict the constitutional values of gender equality and empowerment.
Question 10. Read the following statements about a Constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
(a) The authority of the rules of the Constitution is the same as that of any other law.
(b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
(c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the Constitution.
(d) A Constitution is about institutions, not about values.
(a) Not true: The authority of the rules of the Constitution is greater than that of any other law. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and even the Parliament is bound by it. The rules of the Constitution cannot be changed as easily as ordinary laws and require a special procedure for amendments.
(b) True: The Constitution indeed lays down how different organs of the government will be formed, their powers, and their functions. It outlines the structure of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
(c) True: The Constitution does lay down the rights of citizens in the form of fundamental rights and places limits on the power of the government to ensure that citizens’ rights are protected. The separation of powers among the different branches of government also helps in limiting excessive power.
(d) Not true: A Constitution is not just about institutions; it also embodies values, principles, and ideals that guide the functioning of those institutions. The Preamble of the Constitution, for example, explicitly mentions the values of justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity, which are foundational to the Constitution’s functioning.